# Contextualization

The Conservation of Momentum is a fundamental concept in Physics that states that the total momentum of a system of objects is constant if no external forces are acting on it. This means that in a closed system where no external forces are acting, the total momentum before a collision is equal to the total momentum after the collision.

To understand the concept, let's break down the term. Momentum is the product of an object's mass and its velocity. It is a vector quantity, meaning it has both magnitude and direction. An object can have a large momentum if it has a large mass, a high speed, or both.

Conservation refers to the property of remaining unchanged when examined or measured over time. In this case, it means that the total momentum of a system is conserved, or remains the same, regardless of individual changes in momentum.

The concept of Conservation of Momentum has a wide range of applications in real-world scenarios, from sports to space travel. For example, it is the reason why it is difficult to stop a moving car, why astronauts need to use small rockets to maneuver in space, and why a swimmer can dive into a pool and create very little splash.

Understanding this principle not only allows us to explain and predict the motion of objects in our everyday life but also forms the basis for more advanced theories and concepts in Physics, such as Newton's Laws of Motion and the principle of impulse.

# Resources

For a deeper understanding of the Conservation of Momentum, you can refer to the following resources:

# Practical Activity

## Objective of the Project:

To observe and understand the principle of conservation of momentum through a simple yet engaging experiment of bouncing balls.

## Detailed Description of the Project:

In this project, you will work in groups of 3 to 5 students to perform a series of experiments using different types of balls (e.g., a tennis ball, a basketball, a golf ball, etc.) and measure their rebounds. By doing this, you will be able to observe how the change in momentum of a ball before and after a collision (in this case, the collision is with the ground) is related to its rebound height. This will help you understand the principle of conservation of momentum in a fun and practical way.

## Necessary Materials:

• Different types of balls with varying masses and elasticities (at least 5 types)
• A meter stick or measuring tape
• A flat, hard surface (like a concrete floor or a wooden board)
• A marker and a notebook for recording data

## Detailed Step-by-Step for Carrying Out the Activity:

1. Divide the work among your group members. Assign one person to drop the ball, one person to measure the rebound height, one person to record the data, and one or more persons to observe and assist.

2. Before starting the experiment, decide on a standard height from which you will drop the balls. This height should be the same for all the balls.

3. Start with the first ball. Drop it from the chosen height and measure the rebound height, which is the maximum height the ball reaches after bouncing. Record the data in your notebook.

4. Repeat step 3 for each type of ball, making sure to drop each ball from the same height and measuring the rebound height each time.

5. After completing all tests, compare the rebound heights of the different balls. Discuss why some balls rebound higher than others. This discussion should be based on the concepts of momentum and its conservation.

6. Based on your observations and the principles of conservation of momentum, come up with a hypothesis to explain the differences in rebound heights.

7. Repeat the experiment, this time using a different surface (e.g., grass, carpet, etc.). Compare the results with your previous experiment. Does the type of surface affect the rebound height? Why?

## Project Deliveries:

At the end of the project, each group should submit a report containing the following sections:

1. Introduction: This section should provide the context of the Conservation of Momentum. You should explain the concept, its relevance, and real-world applications. Finally, state the objective of your experiment.

2. Development: In this section, you should describe the experiment in detail, including the materials used, the procedure followed, and the results obtained. Include any tables, graphs, or mathematical calculations that you may have used to analyze the data. Discuss your observations and compare the results between different types of balls and different surfaces.

3. Conclusion: Revisit your initial objective and state whether you achieved it. Summarize your findings and what you learned from the experiment. Based on your observations and the principles of conservation of momentum, discuss why some balls rebound higher than others and why the type of surface affects the rebound height.

4. Bibliography: List the resources you used to work on the project. This includes textbooks, web pages, videos, etc. Make sure to follow the proper citation format for each type of resource.

This project should take approximately two to four hours to complete per participating student and must be delivered within a week from the start date. The report should be written in clear and concise language, free from grammatical and spelling errors, and should follow a logical structure. Remember, the objective of this project is not only to understand the concept of Conservation of Momentum but also to practice important skills like teamwork, problem-solving, and communication. Good luck!

IARA TIP

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