Project: Exploring Pollution's Impact: A Microcosm Study

Environmental science


Pollution and Human Health


Pollution is a significant global issue that affects not only the planet but also human health in various ways. It can be defined as the introduction of harmful substances or products into the environment, leading to their detrimental effects. Pollution is not limited to one form but can manifest as air pollution, water pollution, soil pollution, noise pollution, and light pollution, among others.

Air pollution is a well-known type of pollution. It includes the presence of substances in the air, such as gases, particulates, and biological molecules, that are harmful to human health. These pollutants can cause or contribute to a plethora of health problems, such as respiratory diseases, cardiovascular diseases, and even cancer.

Water pollution, on the other hand, is the contamination of water bodies (like lakes, rivers, oceans, and groundwater) that can disrupt the balance and harm the organisms that live in these environments. It can also have severe effects on human health, leading to waterborne diseases and other health issues.

Soil pollution is the contamination of soil due to the introduction of human-made chemicals or other alteration in the natural soil environment. This can have detrimental effects on plant growth, animal health, and overall ecosystem balance.

Noise pollution and light pollution, though less talked about, can also have negative impacts. Noise pollution can cause hearing loss, stress, and sleep disturbances, while light pollution can disrupt ecosystems, affect human sleep patterns, and even lead to certain diseases.

The connection between pollution and human health is undeniable. Exposure to pollution can lead to a range of health issues, from minor discomfort to severe illness or even death. Some groups, like children, the elderly, and those with pre-existing health conditions, are more vulnerable to the effects of pollution.


The purpose of this project is to deepen your understanding of pollution, its various types, and the effects it has on human health. This will be achieved through research and a hands-on activity that will allow you to observe the effects of pollution on an organism.

By the end of this project, you should be able to:

  1. Understand the different forms of pollution and their sources.
  2. Comprehend the effects of pollution on human health.
  3. Analyze the role of human actions and policies in reducing pollution.
  4. Develop teamwork and communication skills through group work.

You will also be encouraged to think critically about how we can mitigate pollution and its effects, and the role each of us plays in this.


  1. Environmental Pollution and Health (World Health Organization)
  2. Pollution and Human Health (National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences)
  3. Air Pollution (National Geographic)
  4. Effects of Water Pollution (National Geographic)
  5. Light Pollution (National Geographic)
  6. Noise Pollution (National Geographic)

Practical Activity

Activity Title: "Pollution Effects - A Microcosm Study"

Objective of the Project:

To understand and demonstrate the effects of pollution (water and air) on a model ecosystem, and to determine how these effects could impact human health.

Detailed Description of the Project:

In groups of 3 to 5, you will create a controlled ecosystem. This ecosystem will be divided into two parts: one part will represent a clean environment, and the other will represent a polluted environment. The goal is to observe and compare the health and productivity of the organisms (plants and insects) in the two environments over a period of two weeks.

The clean environment will serve as the control group, while the polluted environment will represent the real-world scenario. The pollution in the second environment can be simulated by using substances like oil, detergent, or vinegar in the water and by exposing the system to smoke or dust.

Necessary Materials:

  1. Two identical aquariums or large clear containers.
  2. Gravel, soil, and plants (aquatic and terrestrial).
  3. Water.
  4. Substances for simulating pollution (oil, detergent, vinegar).
  5. Smoke or dust (to simulate air pollution).
  6. Daily observation log.
  7. Camera (optional but recommended for documentation).
  8. Safety goggles and gloves (for handling substances).

Detailed Step-by-Step for Carrying out the Activity:

  1. Divide your group's work evenly - one part will work on creating the clean environment, and the other part will work on creating the polluted environment.

  2. Start by preparing the clean environment. Fill one of the aquariums with gravel, soil, and water. Plant the aquatic and terrestrial plants carefully.

  3. For the polluted environment, add the substances that simulate pollution (oil, detergent, vinegar) to the water. Expose the system to smoke or dust (in a controlled manner). Make sure to wear safety goggles and gloves when handling these substances.

  4. Place the two environments in the same location, where they will receive the same amount of light and air.

  5. Over the next two weeks, observe and record the changes in both environments daily. Take note of the health and productivity of the plants, and whether there are any changes in the insect population.

  6. Document the entire process through photographs or videos (if possible) for your final report.

Project Deliverables:

At the end of the two weeks, each group will submit a report. The report will contain four main sections: Introduction, Development, Conclusion, and Used Bibliography.

  1. The Introduction should provide an overview of pollution and its effects on human health, as well as the objective of the project.

  2. The Development section should discuss the theory behind the types of pollution you investigated and the reasons why they are harmful. It should also detail the methodology used in the project and present and discuss the observations made during the experiment.

  3. The Conclusion should revisit the project's main points, explicitly stating the learnings obtained and the conclusions drawn about the effects of pollution on the microcosm.

  4. The Bibliography should list all the sources you used for your research and to prepare the report.

Remember, your report is not just about what you observed but also about what you learned from the process. It should reflect your understanding of pollution, its effects on the environment and human health, and the steps that can be taken to mitigate or prevent pollution. It should also highlight the teamwork and collaboration skills you used throughout the project.

Project Duration:

The project is expected to take two weeks to complete, with an estimated workload of two to four hours per student.

Group Size:

The project should be carried out in groups of 3 to 5 students.

Project Deliverable:

At the end of the two-week period, each group will submit a written report. The report should be a detailed account of the project, following the structure of Introduction, Development, Conclusion, and Used Bibliography. This report should reflect not only the understanding of pollution and its effects but also the process of creating and observing the controlled ecosystem, and the discussions and conclusions drawn from the project.

The report will be assessed based on the following criteria:

  1. Understanding of the theme: How well the group understands the concept of pollution and its impact on human health, as evidenced by their introduction and development sections.
  2. Application of knowledge: How well the group applies their theoretical knowledge in the practical part of the project and in the analysis of their results.
  3. Observation and analysis: The group's ability to observe and document changes in the microcosm and their analysis of the potential impact of these changes on human health.
  4. Communication and collaboration: The group's ability to work together, solve problems, and communicate their ideas effectively.
  5. Creativity and proactivity: The group's ability to think critically, propose solutions, and take initiative in the project.

The report will be due at the end of the 2-week project period. Each group will also be required to present their findings to the class. The presentation should be a summary of the report, highlighting the main points and conclusions. This will be an opportunity for each group to share what they have learned and to learn from their peers.

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