Objectives
(5  7 minutes)
 To introduce the concept of differentiation in calculus, focusing on the fundamental idea of finding the rate at which a quantity changes over time.
 To develop students' understanding of the derivative as the instantaneous rate of change of a function.
 To provide students with the necessary tools and techniques for solving differentiation problems, such as the power rule, product rule, quotient rule, and chain rule.
 To encourage students to apply their understanding of differentiation in various realworld contexts, promoting the practical application of mathematical concepts.
Secondary Objectives:
 To foster collaborative learning and problemsolving skills through group activities and discussions.
 To enhance students' interest and engagement in the subject by using interactive and handson learning methods.
 To assess students' learning through formative and summative assessments, providing them with constructive feedback to improve their understanding and skills.
Introduction
(10  15 minutes)

The teacher starts the lesson by reminding the students of the concept of a function and its graph. They also recall the concept of the slope of a line, emphasizing that it represents the rate of change. This serves as a foundation for the introduction of differentiation, a more complex concept that builds upon these basic principles.

The teacher then presents two problem situations to the students that can be solved using differentiation. For instance, the first situation could involve finding the rate at which a car's distance from a starting point changes over time. The second situation could involve finding the rate at which the area of a circle changes as its radius increases. These realworld examples help to contextualize the concept of differentiation and make it more relatable and understandable.

The teacher then contextualizes the importance of differentiation by explaining its wide range of applications. They can mention how it is used in physics to describe the motion of objects, in economics to model and analyze business trends, in biology to understand population growth, and in computer science for algorithms and machine learning. This broadens the students' perspective and helps them see the relevance and utility of what they are about to learn.

To grab the students' attention, the teacher shares a couple of interesting facts or stories related to differentiation. For example, they could tell the story of how Sir Isaac Newton and Gottfried Leibniz independently discovered calculus, which includes differentiation. They could also share a fun fact about how differentiation is used in sports to analyze players' performance and make strategic decisions. These engaging elements make the introduction more lively and intriguing, setting a positive tone for the rest of the lesson.

The teacher then formally introduces the topic of the lesson: differentiation in calculus. They explain that differentiation is all about finding the rate at which something changes. They assure the students that while the concept might seem challenging at first, they will break it down into smaller, more manageable parts and provide them with plenty of opportunities to practice and apply what they learn.

The teacher concludes the introduction by outlining the objectives of the lesson and the activities they will be doing. They also encourage the students to ask questions and participate actively in the lesson.
Development
PreClass Activities
(10  15 minutes)

Reading Assignment: The teacher assigns a reading from the textbook or an online resource that covers the basics of differentiation in calculus. The reading should focus on the concept of the derivative as the rate of change and the various rules of differentiation. The students are instructed to take notes on the key points and any questions or areas of confusion they might have.

Video Lesson: The teacher provides a link to a short, engaging video lesson that explains the concept of differentiation in a simple and interactive way. The video should cover the same topics as the reading assignment, reinforcing the key concepts. By watching the video, the students get a visual and auditory explanation of the topic, which can help with comprehension and retention.

Quiz: After completing the reading and video, the students take a short online quiz to check their understanding of the material. This quiz can be a mix of multiple choice, true/false, and short answer questions, covering the main points of the reading and video. The quiz not only helps the students review the material but also provides the teacher with a quick assessment of the students' understanding before the class.
InClass Activities
(30  35 minutes)
Activity 1  "Speed Demon" Differentiation Race

The teacher divides the students into small groups and provides each group with a set of function cards. These cards have different functions (polynomials, trigonometric functions, exponential functions, etc.) that the students will be differentiating.

The teacher explains that the aim of the activity is for each group to differentiate all the functions on their cards as quickly as possible. The group that correctly differentiates all their functions first is the winner.

The teacher also provides each group with a "Differentiation Cheat Sheet" that they can use for reference during the race. This cheat sheet includes the various differentiation rules (power rule, product rule, quotient rule, chain rule, etc.) and examples on how to apply them.

Once the rules of the game are clear, the teacher starts the race. The students in each group work together to differentiate the functions on their cards, using the cheat sheet as a guide. They must check each other's work for accuracy.

The teacher circulates the room, providing guidance and clarifying any doubts that the students might have.

After the race, the teacher reviews the solutions with the whole class, providing a stepbystep explanation of how to differentiate each type of function.
Activity 2  "Derivative Detective" RealWorld Application

For the next activity, the teacher introduces a problem based on a realworld context, such as finding the maximum or minimum values of a function to optimize a business process. The teacher explains that the students' task is to find the solution to the problem using differentiation.

The students remain in their groups and work collaboratively to solve the problem. They must identify the appropriate function from the problem and use differentiation to find the solution.

The teacher circulates the room, providing guidance and clarifying any doubts that the students might have. They also take the opportunity to observe the students' problemsolving process and identify any common misconceptions or areas of difficulty.

Once the groups have found their solutions, the teacher asks one group to present their solution to the whole class. The other groups are encouraged to provide feedback and ask questions. This interactive presentation and discussion help to consolidate the learning and stimulate critical thinking.

The teacher concludes the activities by summarizing the key points and addressing any remaining questions or doubts. They also provide feedback on the students' performance, giving praise for correct solutions and constructive advice for areas of improvement.

Finally, the teacher explains the homework assignment, which will reinforce the concepts learned during the lesson. They also remind the students to review their notes and the materials from the preclass activities to consolidate their understanding of differentiation.
Feedback
(5  10 minutes)

Group Discussion: The teacher facilitates a group discussion where each group is given a chance to share their solutions or conclusions from the activities. This allows students to learn from each other's approaches and understandings, and it provides the teacher with an opportunity to assess the students' grasp of the concepts. The teacher encourages groups to ask questions and provide feedback to their peers, fostering a collaborative learning environment.

Connecting Theory and Practice: The teacher then guides the discussion to connect the activities with the theoretical concepts of differentiation. They ask the students to explain how they used the differentiation rules to solve the problems in the activities. The teacher also highlights any instances where the students' solutions or approaches demonstrate the concepts of differentiation, such as finding the rate of change or the maximum/minimum values. This helps the students see the practical application of the theoretical concepts, reinforcing their understanding and making the learning more meaningful.

Reflection on Learning: The teacher then asks the students to take a moment to reflect on what they have learned in the lesson. They can use the following questions to guide their reflection:
 What was the most important concept you learned today?
 What questions or areas of confusion do you still have?
 How can you apply what you learned today in realworld situations or other subjects?

Individual Feedback: The teacher then provides feedback on the students' performance in the activities and their understanding of the concepts. They highlight the strengths they observed, such as good collaboration, problemsolving skills, or understanding of the concepts. They also point out areas for improvement and suggest strategies for further practice and study. The teacher ensures that the feedback is constructive and specific, focusing on the learning objectives of the lesson.

Addressing Remaining Questions: Finally, the teacher addresses any remaining questions or areas of confusion. They can use this opportunity to clarify any difficult concepts or to provide additional examples and explanations. They also remind the students to review their notes, the materials from the preclass activities, and the solutions to the inclass activities to consolidate their understanding of differentiation. The teacher assures the students that it is normal to have questions and doubts, and they are always there to help them.
This feedback stage is essential for the students to consolidate their learning, understand their strengths and areas for improvement, and prepare for the next steps in their learning journey. It also provides the teacher with valuable insights into the students' understanding and performance, which can inform their future teaching and planning.
Conclusion
(5  7 minutes)

Lesson Recap: The teacher begins the conclusion by summarizing the key points of the lesson. They remind the students that differentiation is the process of finding the rate at which a quantity changes, and the derivative is the tool used for this purpose. They reiterate the various differentiation rules (power rule, product rule, quotient rule, chain rule) and the concept of finding the maximum or minimum values of a function. They also recap the realworld applications of differentiation, such as in physics, economics, biology, and computer science. This recap serves to reinforce the students' understanding of the lesson's content and provide a solid foundation for future lessons.

Connecting Theory, Practice, and Application: The teacher then explains how the lesson bridged the gap between theory, practice, and application. They highlight how the preclass activities (reading, video, and quiz) provided the theoretical background for the inclass activities, and how the inclass activities (Differentiation Race and Derivative Detective) allowed the students to apply this theory in a practical context. They also emphasize how the realworld examples used in the lesson helped the students see the practical applications of the theoretical concepts. This connection between theory, practice, and application is crucial for deepening the students' understanding and making the learning more meaningful and applicable.

Additional Resources: The teacher suggests additional resources for the students to further their understanding and practice of differentiation. These resources could include:
 Online tutorials and interactive exercises on differentiation.
 Applets and simulations that visualize the process of differentiation.
 Practice problems and worksheets on differentiation.
 Recommended readings and videos on the history and applications of calculus and differentiation.

Importance of Differentiation: Finally, the teacher concludes the lesson by emphasizing the importance of differentiation in everyday life. They explain that differentiation is not just a mathematical concept, but a powerful tool for understanding and modeling change. They give examples of how differentiation is used in various fields, such as predicting the spread of diseases, optimizing traffic flow, designing computer algorithms, and even in everyday tasks like cooking and gardening. They also stress that learning differentiation is not just about passing exams, but about developing critical thinking and problemsolving skills that can be applied in any field. This final note helps to motivate the students and instill in them a sense of the value and relevance of what they have learned.