Objectives (5  10 minutes)
 Understand the basic concept of gravitational forces and how they work.
 Explore how the force of gravity affects the motion of objects.
 Investigate the significance of mass in the force of gravity.
Secondary Objectives:
 Develop critical thinking skills by analyzing the effects of gravity in realworld scenarios.
 Enhance group work and communication skills through collaborative activities.
By the end of this lesson, students should be able to explain the concept of gravitational forces in their own words, describe how gravity impacts the movement of objects, and discuss the role of mass in the gravitational pull.
Introduction (10  15 minutes)

The teacher begins the lesson by asking students to recall previous lessons on forces and motion. This will help to jog their memory and provide a foundation for the current lesson on gravitational forces. The teacher may ask questions like, "What do you remember about forces?" or "Can anyone explain what we learned about motion?"

Next, the teacher will introduce two problem situations to spark interest and curiosity:

Problem 1: "Imagine you are on the moon and you dropped a feather and a hammer at the same time. Which will reach the ground first?" This question will lead into a discussion about the lack of air resistance on the moon and the concept of gravitational acceleration.

Problem 2: "If we could drill a hole through the center of the Earth and jump in, what would happen?" This question will provoke thoughts about the effects of gravity and will be revisited later in the lesson.


The teacher will then contextualize the importance of understanding gravitational forces by discussing its realworld applications. For instance, they could talk about how gravity is crucial for maintaining life on Earth as it holds everything together, from the air we breathe to the water we drink. It also affects everything from the functioning of our bodies to the construction of buildings and bridges.

To introduce the topic in an engaging way, the teacher can share the following curiosities:

Fun Fact 1: "Did you know that without gravity, we would float off the Earth?"

Fun Fact 2: "Did you know that the force of gravity changes depending on where you are on Earth? It's stronger at the poles and weaker at the equator due to the Earth's shape!"


After sharing the fun facts, the teacher will formally introduce the topic: "Today, we are going to explore gravitational forces  the invisible force that keeps us grounded on Earth and governs the motion of everything in the universe, from tiny dust particles to giant galaxies. By the end of the lesson, you will be able to explain what gravitational forces are, how they work, and how they affect the motion of objects."
Development (20  25 minutes)

Introduction to the theory of gravitational forces. (5 minutes)

The teacher should begin this stage by saying, "Gravitational force, often simply called gravity, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass are brought toward one another.”

They should then instruct students to take notes as they explain that this includes the attraction between objects and the earth, which is why when objects are dropped, they fall down rather than going up.


Explanation of the Law of Universal Gravitation. (5 minutes)

Next, the teacher should introduce Sir Isaac Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation, which is a fundamental principle in understanding the concept of gravity. The teacher explains, "The law states that every particle of matter in the universe attracts every other particle with a force that is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between their centers.”

They should make it clear that this means the greater the mass of the objects and the closer they are together, the stronger the gravitational pull between them.


Demonstration of gravity using a simulation or a video. (5 minutes)

To supplement the theoretical explanation, the teacher should show a simulation or video showing the force of gravity at work. This aids visual learners in understanding how gravity works.

A good example would be a simulation of the solar system, where students can see how gravity keeps the planets in orbit around the sun.

After the demonstration, the teacher can facilitate a short discussion, asking questions such as, "Do you notice how the planets continue to orbit around the sun? Why do you think that is?"


Explaining the effects of gravity. (5 minutes)

The teacher should go on to discuss the effects of gravity. This includes explaining that gravity gives weight to physical objects and causes the ocean tides.

The teacher can use realworld examples, such as "The reason why things fall to the ground when you drop them rather than floating in the air is due to gravity" or “The high and low tides at the beach occur because of the gravitational pull of the moon and the sun on earth's water.”


Return to the problem situations introduced in the first stage. (5 minutes)

The teacher can then use the understanding of gravitational forces to go back to the hook questions from the beginning.

For the dropping feather and hammer on the moon question, they might guide the class towards understanding that both would hit the ground at the same time due to the absence of air resistance and the uniform acceleration due to gravity.

For the jumping into a hole through Earth question, the teacher might discuss how one would speed up as they fall thanks to gravity, then slow down and eventually stop and reverse direction as they approach the other side (ignoring practical issues such as heat and pressure). Aid visual understanding with modeling or illustrations as needed.

Throughout all these steps, the teacher should create an open classroom environment, where the students feel comfortable asking questions for clarifications and the teacher regularly pauses for recapitulations or class discussions.
Feedback (10  15 minutes)

The teacher begins the feedback stage by reviewing the learning objectives and revisiting the main concepts taught during the lesson. This will help students consolidate their understanding of gravitational forces. The teacher can do this by summarizing the important points, such as the definition of gravitational forces, the Law of Universal Gravitation, and the effects of gravity. (3 minutes)

Next, the teacher should invite students to share how they can apply what they've learned in realworld contexts. Here are some suggestions to facilitate this discussion:
 Ask students to explain the concept of gravitational forces in their own words and provide reallife examples.
 Have students discuss how understanding gravity can be important in various professions, such as an astronaut, pilot, engineer, or even a sports person.
 Encourage students to think about how gravitational forces affect their everyday lives. For instance, they can talk about how gravity impacts simple activities like running, jumping, or tossing a ball.
 Students can also discuss other scenarios where the force of gravity is evident, like the falling of apples from a tree, the motion of a pendulum, or the movement of the moon around the Earth. (5 minutes)

The teacher should then ask students to reflect on what they have learned and identify any areas they found challenging or confusing. This can be done by asking questions such as:
 "What was the most important concept you learned today?"
 "What aspect of today's lesson did you find most challenging?"
 "What questions about gravitational forces do you still have?"
 "Can you think of any other reallife examples of gravity at work that we haven't covered?" (3 minutes)

Finally, the teacher should provide an opportunity for students to ask questions and clarify any doubts they may have. This can be done in a wholeclass setting, or the teacher can ask students to write down their questions on a piece of paper for the teacher to address individually. This will ensure that all students, including those who may be shy or hesitant to participate in class discussions, have their queries addressed. (4 minutes)

To conclude the lesson, the teacher should reiterate the importance of understanding gravitational forces and encourage students to continue exploring the topic in their own time. They should remind students that learning is an ongoing process and they should always be curious and ask questions. The teacher can say, "Remember, science is all about asking questions and seeking answers. So keep being curious about the world around you!" (2 minutes)
In the next class, the teacher can begin by addressing any unanswered questions from this lesson and provide further clarification on the topic of gravitational forces as needed. This will ensure that students have a solid understanding of the concept before moving on to new topics.
Conclusion (5  10 minutes)

Summary of the Lesson's Main Contents (2 minutes)

The teacher should begin by summarizing the key points covered during the lesson. This includes the definition of gravitational forces, the Law of Universal Gravitation, and the effect of gravity on objects.

The teacher may say, "Today, we learned that gravitational forces are the natural phenomenon that attracts all things with mass towards each other. We also explored Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation, which states that the force of gravity between two objects is directly proportional to their masses and inversely proportional to the distance between them. Lastly, we discussed how gravity affects our daily lives, from causing objects to fall to the ground, to influencing the ocean tides."


Connection Between Theory, Practice, and Applications (2 minutes)

Next, the teacher should explain how the lesson bridged the gap between theory, practice, and realworld applications.

The teacher might say, "We started with the theoretical concept of gravitational forces and Newton's Law. We then moved on to practical demonstrations through simulations and videos. Finally, we discussed realworld applications of gravity, like the falling of apples from a tree, the ocean tides, and even the functioning of our bodies."


Additional Resources for Further Learning (1 minute)

The teacher should then recommend further resources for students who wish to explore the topic of gravitational forces in more depth.

This could include books like "Gravity: An Introduction to Einstein's General Relativity" by James B. Hartle, educational websites like NASA's site, or documentaries like "The Story of Gravity."

The teacher should remind students, "Remember, the more you read and explore, the better your understanding of gravitational forces will be!"


Relevance of Gravitational Forces in Everyday Life (2 minutes)

Lastly, the teacher should emphasize the importance of understanding gravitational forces in everyday life and future scientific study.

The teacher could say, "Understanding gravitational forces isn't just for astronauts or physicists. It's a fundamental concept in science that impacts our everyday lives. Whether you're playing sports, driving a car, or even just walking, you're experiencing the effects of gravitational forces. So, understanding this force can help us appreciate the world around us and inspire us to explore other fascinating concepts in physics."


Encouragement for Future Lessons (1 minute)
 The teacher concludes the lesson by encouraging students for upcoming lessons. The teacher could say, "You've all done excellent work today! I'm looking forward to our next lessons where we'll dive deeper into the fascinating world of physics. Keep being curious and never stop asking questions!"
The teacher can then end the class, reminding the students of the homework assignments, if any, and the schedule for the next class.