Objectives (57 minutes)
The teacher will:
 Introduce the concept of thermal conductivity, explaining that it is the property of a material to conduct heat and thus determine how quickly heat can pass through it.
 Explain the concept of thermal resistance, stating that it is the opposite of thermal conductivity. Thermal resistance is a measure of how resistant a material is to the flow of heat.
 Describe the realworld applications of thermal conductors and insulators, such as in building materials, clothing, and cooking utensils.
 Outline the goals of the lesson, which include:
 Understanding the difference between thermal conductors and insulators.
 Learning about the factors that influence thermal conductivity and resistance.
 Identifying common materials that are good thermal conductors and insulators.
 Briefly mention that the students will be conducting a handson experiment to test the thermal conductivity of different materials. This experiment will provide them with a practical understanding of the topic.
Students will:
 Listen and actively participate in the discussion.
 Take note of the key points and objectives for the lesson.
 Prepare for the handson experiment by understanding the steps involved and the materials needed.
Introduction (1015 minutes)
The teacher will:

Remind students of the previous lessons on heat and temperature, emphasizing the transfer of heat and the difference between conductors and insulators of electricity. The teacher will use this opportunity to establish a link between these concepts and the new topic of thermal conductors and insulators, explaining that just as some materials allow the flow of electricity while others resist it, the same applies to the flow of heat.

Present two problem situations to the students:
 The teacher will place a metal spoon and a wooden spoon in a cup of hot water, asking the students to predict which one will heat up faster.
 The teacher will show two identical ice cubes, one wrapped in aluminum foil and the other in a cloth, asking the students to predict which ice cube will melt faster when placed in a warm room.

Contextualize the importance of understanding thermal conductors and insulators by discussing realworld applications. For instance, the teacher can mention how the concept is used in the design of thermos flasks to keep hot drinks hot and cold drinks cold, or in the construction industry to determine which materials are best for insulation.

Introduce the topic in an engaging way by sharing two interesting facts or stories:
 The teacher can share the story of Sir Humphry Davy, an English chemist who in 1817 conducted a famous experiment on thermal conductivity. He used a 100foot iron rod heated at one end and touched it with his bare hand at the other end, proving that metals are good conductors of heat!
 The teacher can also share the fun fact that penguins, which live in extremely cold environments, have blubber, a thick layer of fat, under their skin. This fat acts as an insulator, preventing the loss of body heat to the cold air and water.

The teacher will then formally introduce the topic of the day: "Today, we are going to explore the world of thermal conductors and insulators. We will learn why some materials get hot or cold very quickly, while others don't. We will also discover how these properties are used in various everyday objects and situations."

The students will:
 Listen attentively to the teacher's explanations and stories.
 Discuss among themselves and with the teacher about the problem situations presented.
 Begin to understand the importance and relevance of the topic.
Development (20  25 minutes)
The teacher will:

Theoretical Explanation (7  10 minutes)
 Begin by reinforcing the concept of thermal conductivity as the ability of a material to conduct heat and thermal resistance as the property of a material to resist the flow of heat.
 Draw a diagram on the board representing a simple conduction experiment, with a heat source at one end of a metal rod, the rod itself, and a thermometer at the other end. Explain that the speed at which the temperature rises at the thermometer is an indication of the thermal conductivity of the rod.
 Discuss the unit of thermal conductivity (W/mK  Watts per meter Kelvin), ensuring students understand that this unit measures how quickly heat can pass through a material of a given thickness.
 Explain that materials with high thermal conductivity, such as metals, are good conductors, while materials with low thermal conductivity, such as air, are good insulators.
 Use a few more examples, such as comparing the feel of metal and wooden chairs on a hot day or discussing why different parts of a room heat up at different rates when the heater is turned on, to illustrate the concepts of conductors and insulators.
 Highlight that the thermal conductivity of a material can be influenced by various factors, including its composition, density, and temperature.

Material Selection (5  7 minutes)
 Introduce the materials that students will use for their handson experiment  a variety of common materials such as metals (aluminum, copper), plastics, wood, and cloth.
 Discuss the properties of these materials, their uses in everyday life, and encourage students to think about how these properties might indicate their thermal conductivity.
 Using the two ice cubes (one wrapped in aluminum foil and the other in a cloth) and two spoons (one metal and one wooden) from the introduction, remind students of the initial problem situations and explain that these will serve as a "control group" for their experiment.
 Explain that they will compare the time it takes for the ice in each material to melt, with the fastermelting ice indicating a better conductor of heat.
 Encourage students to make predictions about the experiment based on their understanding of the materials' properties and the concept of thermal conductivity.

Handson Experiment (8  10 minutes)
 Divide the students into groups of 3 or 4, provide each group with the necessary materials and guides, and explain the experiment's procedure.
 Instruct the groups to start their experiment by placing an ice cube (one wrapped in aluminum foil and the other in a cloth) on each of the spoons (one metal and one wooden) and record their predictions.
 As the students carry out the experiment, walk around the room, observing their progress, and answering any questions they might have.
 Once the ice cubes have started to melt, the groups should begin to record how long it takes for each ice cube to fully melt, and therefore which material, the metal or the wood, is the better conductor of heat.
 After the experiment, have a class discussion where each group shares their results and conclusions. The teacher should facilitate the discussion, ensuring that each group has the opportunity to speak and that all students understand the results.
The students will:
 Listen attentively to the theoretical explanation, taking notes as necessary.
 Discuss with their group about the experiment, making predictions and sharing their understanding of the concept of thermal conductivity.
 Conduct the handson experiment, recording their results and drawing conclusions based on their observations.
 Participate in the class discussion, sharing their group's results and conclusions, and listening to other groups' findings.
Feedback (8  10 minutes)
The teacher will:

Group Discussion (3  4 minutes)
 Ask each group to share their findings from the handson experiment. The teacher should facilitate the discussion, ensuring each group has a chance to speak and that all students understand the results.
 Encourage students to explain their observations and the conclusions they drew from the experiment. This should include discussing which materials were good conductors and which were good insulators based on the time it took for the ice cubes to melt.
 The teacher should also highlight any unexpected results or interesting observations made by the groups, fostering a sense of curiosity and engagement with the topic.

Linking Theory and Practice (2  3 minutes)
 After all groups have shared their results, the teacher should summarize the main findings and connect them back to the theoretical concepts of thermal conductivity and resistance.
 The teacher should highlight how the students' observations in the experiment align with the realworld application of these concepts, for instance, in the design of thermos flasks (where air is used as an insulator) or in the choice of cooking utensils (where metals are good conductors, allowing for even heat distribution).
 The teacher should emphasize that the handson experiment provided a tangible way for students to understand and apply these theoretical concepts, making learning more engaging and meaningful.

Reflection on Learning (2  3 minutes)
 Ask the students to take a moment to reflect on what they learned in the lesson. The teacher can pose questions to guide this reflection, such as:
 What was the most important concept you learned today?
 Which questions do you still have about thermal conductors and insulators?
 How does understanding thermal conductors and insulators change the way you think about everyday objects and materials?
 Ask the students to take a moment to reflect on what they learned in the lesson. The teacher can pose questions to guide this reflection, such as:
The students will:
 Participate in the group discussion, sharing their group's findings and listening to other groups' results.
 Listen to the teacher's summary, connecting their experiment's findings back to the theoretical concepts.
 Reflect on their learning, considering the questions posed by the teacher and thinking about how the lesson has deepened their understanding of thermal conductors and insulators.
Conclusion (5  7 minutes)
The teacher will:

Summary and Recap (2  3 minutes)
 Summarize the main points covered in the lesson, including the definitions of thermal conductors and insulators, the factors that influence thermal conductivity and resistance, and the realworld applications of these concepts.
 Recap the handson experiment, reminding students of the materials used, the predictions made, and the conclusions drawn.
 Relate the results of the experiment back to the theoretical concepts, emphasizing how the time it took for the ice cubes to melt provided a practical demonstration of thermal conductivity.

Connecting Theory, Practice, and Applications (1  2 minutes)
 Highlight how the lesson connected theory and practice, with the theoretical explanations of thermal conductivity and resistance being applied in the handson experiment.
 Discuss how the understanding of thermal conductors and insulators is not only an academic concept but also has practical applications in everyday life. For instance, understanding these concepts can help in making informed choices about what materials to use in various situations, from cooking to dressing for the weather.
 Encourage students to continue to make these connections in their own learning, recognizing that the concepts they learn in the classroom have realworld applications.

Additional Materials (1 minute)
 Suggest additional resources for students who wish to explore the topic further. This can include books, websites, or educational videos about heat transfer and the properties of materials.
 Reassure students that it's okay if they still have questions or want to learn more about thermal conductors and insulators. Encourage them to continue to explore and ask questions, as this is a crucial part of the learning process.

Everyday Relevance (1  2 minutes)
 Conclude by reiterating the importance of understanding thermal conductors and insulators in everyday life. Remind students of the examples mentioned throughout the lesson, such as the construction of buildings, the design of clothing, and the functioning of household appliances.
 Encourage students to be mindful of these concepts in their daily lives, observing and thinking about the materials around them and how they interact with heat.
 Highlight that the knowledge gained in the lesson can help them make more informed decisions and appreciate the science behind the objects and materials they encounter every day.
The students will:
 Listen attentively to the teacher's summary and recap, ensuring they understand the main points of the lesson.
 Reflect on the connections made between theory and practice, understanding the value of handson experiments in reinforcing theoretical concepts.
 Note down any additional resources suggested by the teacher, showing an interest in learning more about the topic.
 Reflect on the everyday relevance of the topic, considering how their understanding of thermal conductors and insulators can be applied in their daily lives.