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# Contextualization

Quadratic functions are an important topic in mathematics that every high school student must master. They are everywhere in the world around us, from the shape of a football field to the path of a basketball's arc, the height of a rocket, and the profit of a company.

A quadratic function is a second-degree polynomial equation in a single variable with the general form: f(x) = ax^2 + bx + c, where a, b, and c are constants and a ≠ 0. The graph of a quadratic function is a parabola, a symmetric curve that opens either upward or downward.

Understanding quadratic functions is crucial in many science, technology, engineering, and mathematical fields. For instance, in physics, they can be used to calculate the trajectory of a projectile. In economics, they are used to model profit and loss. In computer science, they are used in algorithms and optimization problems.

# Importance

Understanding and applying quadratic functions can help you make sense of the world around you. They are used in a wide range of real-world applications, such as determining the maximum or minimum points in business and economics, modeling the spread of diseases, predicting the path of a satellite, and even in the design of bridges and buildings.

In addition, learning about quadratic functions can also enhance your problem-solving skills. It teaches you to break down complex problems into smaller, more manageable parts, to analyze and interpret data, and to make predictions. These skills are not only valuable in math but also in many other areas of life and work.

# Resources

To help you with this project, here are some reliable resources that you can use:

These resources provide a wealth of information, examples, and practice problems to help you understand and apply the concepts of quadratic functions.

# Practical Activity

## Objective of the project:

The main objective of this project is to create a real-world scenario that can be modeled by a quadratic function. The scenario should be from one of the following domains: sports, physics, economics, or architecture. The students must formulate the quadratic function that represents their chosen scenario and interpret the meaning of the function's parameters in the context of their scenario.

## Detailed description of the project:

Students will work in groups of 3 to 5 to develop their project. The project involves four main steps:

1. Choose a Scenario: Each group will select a real-world scenario from the domains mentioned above (sports, physics, economics, or architecture). The scenario should be something the group members are interested in and can easily collect data or make reasonable assumptions about.

2. Model the Scenario: Based on the chosen scenario, the group will create a quadratic function that represents the situation. The group will decide the values of a, b, and c in the general form of the quadratic function (f(x) = ax^2 + bx + c) and explain why these values were chosen.

3. Graph the Function: The group will use a graphing tool, such as Desmos, to graph their quadratic function. They should also identify and explain the vertex, axis of symmetry, and y-intercept of the parabola.

4. Interpret the Function: The group will interpret the meaning of the function's parameters (a, b, and c) in the context of their scenario. They will also use the graph to make predictions or draw conclusions about their scenario.

## Necessary materials:

• Computers with internet access
• Graphing tool (e.g., Desmos)
• Notebook for brainstorming and calculations

## Detailed step-by-step for carrying out the activity:

1. Form a Group: Form a group of 3 to 5 students. Make sure everyone in the group is interested in the chosen domain and has access to the necessary materials.

2. Choose a Scenario: Discuss and choose a real-world scenario from the domains given (sports, physics, economics, or architecture).

3. Model the Scenario: Based on your chosen scenario, create a quadratic function that represents the situation. Explain why you chose the values of a, b, and c.

4. Graph the Function: Use a graphing tool to plot your function. Identify and explain the vertex, axis of symmetry, and y-intercept of the parabola.

5. Interpret the Function: Interpret the meaning of the function's parameters in the context of your scenario. Use the graph to make predictions or draw conclusions about your scenario.

6. Report Writing: Each group member will contribute to writing a report that details the process of the project. The report should include an introduction, development, conclusions, and a bibliography.

• In the Introduction, the students will contextualize the chosen scenario, its relevance, and real-world application, as well as the objective of this project.

• In the Development section, the students will detail the theory behind quadratic functions, explain the chosen scenario and the model created, present the methodology used, and discuss the obtained results.

• In the Conclusions, the students will revisit the main points of the project, discuss what they learned from it, and draw conclusions about the application of quadratic functions in real-life situations.

• In the Bibliography, the students will list the resources they used for the project, including books, websites, and videos.

7. Presentation: Each group will present their project to the class. The presentation should be clear, engaging, and informative.

The project will take approximately one week to complete, with an estimated workload of three to five hours per student. At the end of the project, students should have a deeper understanding of quadratic functions and their real-world applications. They should also have improved their teamwork, problem-solving, and communication skills.

Math

# Contextualization

Scatter plots, also known as scatter diagrams or scatter graphs, are mathematical tools used to investigate the relationship between two sets of data. These plots are a visual representation of data points that show how much one variable is affected by another. They are particularly useful when there is a large amount of data and you want to identify any patterns or correlations.

In a scatter plot, each dot represents a single data point, with the position of the dot indicating the values for the two variables. The closer the dots are to a straight line, the stronger the relationship between the two variables. If the line slopes upwards from left to right, it indicates a positive correlation, while a downward slope signifies a negative correlation. A flat line indicates no correlation.

Scatter plots are not only useful for visualizing data, but they also have a practical application in the real world. They are widely used in science, engineering, finance, and many other fields to understand the relationship between two variables and make predictions based on this relationship. For example, they can be used to predict how the price of a product will change based on its demand, or how the temperature will affect the growth of a plant.

# Importance of Scatter Plots

Scatter plots are a fundamental tool in data analysis and are one of the first steps in understanding the relationship between two variables. They allow us to see patterns and trends in the data that may not be apparent from just looking at the raw numbers. This makes them an important tool for scientists, researchers, and anyone who deals with large amounts of data.

In addition, scatter plots can also be used to model data. This means that once we have identified a pattern or trend in the data, we can use this to make predictions about future data points. This is particularly valuable in fields such as finance, where being able to predict future trends can help make better investment decisions.

Understanding scatter plots and how to interpret them is therefore not only a useful mathematical skill but also an important skill in many real-world applications. By the end of this project, you will be able to confidently create and interpret scatter plots, and use them to make predictions and model data.

# Resources

2. Interactive Scatter Plot Tutorial
3. BBC Bitesize: Scatter Graphs
4. Math is Fun: Scatter Plots
5. Book: "Statistics and Data Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences", by Dana S. Dunn, Suzanne Mannes, and Stephen G. West.

You will find these resources helpful in understanding the theory and practical application of scatter plots.

# Practical Activity

## Objective of the Project:

The main objective of this project is to enable students to create and interpret scatter plots. The students will work in groups to collect data, construct a scatter plot, interpret the plot to identify relationships, and use the plot to make predictions.

## Detailed Description of the Project:

In this project, students will work in groups of 3 to 5 to collect data on two variables of their choice. They will then plot this data on a scatter plot, interpret the plot, and use it to make predictions. The data can be collected from any reliable source or can be gathered by students themselves (for example, by conducting a survey). The project will be conducted over a period of one week, with each group expected to spend approximately 4 to 6 hours on the project.

## Necessary Materials:

• A computer or laptop with internet access for research and data analysis
• A notebook for recording data and observations
• Graphing paper or a computer program for creating scatter plots
• A ruler or a computer program for plotting the data accurately
• Calculator (for calculating statistical parameters, if necessary)

## Detailed Step-by-Step for Carrying out the Activity:

1. Choose a Topic: Start by choosing a topic for the project. This can be anything that has two measurable variables that you can collect data on. For example, you could choose the number of hours of study and the test score, the temperature and the number of ice cream cones sold, or the amount of rainfall and the number of plants in a garden.

2. Collect Data: Once you have chosen your topic, start collecting data on your two variables. This can be done by conducting a survey, researching online, or using data from a reliable source.

3. Organize and Analyze Data: Once you have collected your data, organize it in a table or spreadsheet. Then, calculate any necessary statistical parameters, such as the mean or standard deviation, that you may need later.

4. Create the Scatter Plot: Using your organized data, create a scatter plot. This can be done on paper or using a computer program. Make sure to label your axes and include a title.

5. Interpret the Scatter Plot: Look at your scatter plot and try to identify any patterns or relationships. Is the relationship between the two variables positive, negative, or none? How strong is the relationship? Are there any outliers?

6. Make Predictions: Based on your scatter plot, make some predictions. For example, if your scatter plot shows a positive relationship between hours of study and test score, you could predict that someone who studies for 10 hours will get a higher test score than someone who studies for 5 hours.

7. Write the Report: Finally, write a detailed report of your project. This report should include an introduction (where you explain the project and its relevance), a development section (where you detail the theory behind scatter plots, explain the steps you took to create your plot, and discuss your findings), a conclusion (where you summarize what you learned from the project), and a bibliography (where you list the sources you used for the project). Remember, this report should be written in a clear, concise, and engaging way.

## Project Deliverables:

At the end of this project, each group is expected to submit a written report and a scatter plot. The scatter plot should be neat, accurate, and clearly labeled. The report should be written in a clear, concise, and engaging way, and should include an introduction, a development section, a conclusion, and a bibliography.

The introduction should provide context for the project, explain the chosen topic, and state the objective of the project. The development section should detail the theory behind scatter plots, explain the steps taken to create the scatter plot, and discuss the findings. The conclusion should summarize the main points of the project and state what the group learned from the project. Finally, the bibliography should list all the sources used in the project.

The report should be a reflection of the group's understanding of scatter plots, their ability to collect and analyze data, and their problem-solving and teamwork skills. The scatter plot should be a clear and accurate representation of the data, and should show the group's ability to interpret and use the plot to make predictions.

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Math

# Contextualization

## Introduction to Polynomials

Polynomials are mathematical expressions that consist of variables, coefficients, and exponents, combined using addition, subtraction, and multiplication. They are an essential part of algebra and are used to solve a wide range of mathematical problems. The term "polynomial" comes from the Latin word polynoma, which means "many terms".

There are different types of polynomials, including linear polynomials, quadratic polynomials, cubic polynomials, and so on. The degree of a polynomial is determined by the highest power of the variable in the polynomial. For example, in the polynomial `2x^3 - 4x^2 + 3x - 2`, the highest power of the variable `x` is 3, so the polynomial is of degree 3, or cubic.

## Understanding Roots of a Polynomial

The roots of a polynomial are the values of the variable that make the polynomial equal to zero. For example, the roots of the polynomial `x^2 - 4` are 2 and -2, because when we substitute these values for `x`, the polynomial becomes `(2)^2 - 4 = 0` and `(-2)^2 - 4 = 0`, which are both true.

The roots of a polynomial are also known as the solutions or the zeroes of the polynomial. Finding the roots of a polynomial is an important problem in algebra and has many practical applications, such as in physics, engineering, and computer science.

## The Importance of Roots in Mathematics and Real Life

The concept of roots is not exclusive to polynomials. It has widespread applications in many areas of mathematics, including number theory, calculus, and complex analysis. In real life, the concept of roots is used in various fields, such as physics to calculate trajectories, in economics to find break-even points, and in computer science for algorithms and data analysis.

Understanding the concept of roots of a polynomial can help us solve complex mathematical problems, make accurate predictions in the real world, and design efficient algorithms in computer science. Therefore, it is an important concept for any student of mathematics to understand.

# Practical Activity

## Objective of the Project

The main objective of this project is to help students understand the concept of polynomial roots and their applications. Through research, calculations, and creative problem-solving, students will gain a deeper understanding of polynomials and learn how to find their roots.

## Detailed Description of the Project

In this project, each group of students will work together to explore different polynomials and find their roots. The project will be divided into four main tasks:

1. Research: Students will conduct research on polynomials, their types, and how to find their roots. They will use the provided resources and may also use other reliable sources for their research.

2. Polynomial Creation: Each group will create five different polynomials of varying degrees. These polynomials should be unique and should not be from any existing resources.

3. Roots Finding: Students will find the roots of all the polynomials they created. They will also find the roots of five additional polynomials provided by the teacher.

4. Real-Life Applications: Students will explore and discuss real-life applications of polynomial roots in fields such as physics, engineering, economics, and computer science.

## Necessary Materials

1. Internet access for research.
2. Notebook and pen for note-taking and calculations.
3. Calculator for complex calculations.
4. Presentation software (PowerPoint, Google Slides, etc.) for creating the final presentation.

## Detailed Step-by-step for Carrying Out the Activity

1. Form Groups and Assign Roles: Divide the students into groups of 3 to 5. Each group should assign roles such as researcher, polynomial creator, calculator operator, etc.

2. Research Polynomials: The researcher(s) in each group will conduct research on polynomials and how to find their roots. They should use the provided resources and other reliable sources for their research.

3. Create Polynomials: Each group will create five unique polynomials of varying degrees. These should be written down in the notebook.

4. Find Roots: The calculator operator(s) will find the roots of the polynomials created by their group. They will also find the roots of five additional polynomials provided by the teacher. All the roots should be recorded in the notebook.

5. Discuss and Analyze: As a group, students will discuss the roots they found and analyze the patterns and relationships between the roots and the polynomials.

6. Real-Life Applications: The group will research and discuss real-life applications of polynomial roots in various fields.

7. Prepare Presentation: Each group will prepare a final presentation summarizing their findings and discoveries. The presentation should include an introduction to polynomials, a discussion of the methods used to find the roots, the roots of the polynomials created by the group and the additional polynomials provided by the teacher, and examples of real-life applications of polynomial roots.

8. Presentation and Discussion: Each group will present their findings to the class. After each presentation, there will be a short discussion where other groups can ask questions and add their insights.

9. Write the Report: Each group will write a report detailing the project and its results. The report should follow the structure of Introduction, Development, Conclusions, and Used Bibliography.

# Project Deliverables

1. Notebook: The notebook should contain all the polynomials created by the group and the roots found for each polynomial.

2. Presentation: The presentation should be a visual summary of the project, highlighting the main points and findings.

3. Report: The report should provide a detailed account of the project, including the research conducted, the polynomials created, the roots found, the real-life applications of polynomial roots discussed, and the group's conclusions. The report should also include the bibliography of the sources used for the project.

By the end of this project, students should have a better understanding of polynomials and their roots, and they should be able to find the roots of a given polynomial on their own. They should also be able to apply this knowledge to real-life problems and scenarios.

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Math

# Contextualization

## Introduction to Similar Triangles

Triangles are basic geometric shapes that appear everywhere in our world, from bridges to pyramids to the structure of molecules. They are three-sided polygons that form the fundamental building blocks of geometry.

In the realm of triangles, there is a important concept called 'Similarity'. Similar triangles are triangles that have the same shape but not necessarily the same size. Their corresponding angles are equal, and their sides are proportional. This property of similarity is one of the most important concepts in geometry, with a wide range of applications in the real world.

## Why is it Important?

Understanding the concept of similarity is crucial in various scientific and technical fields. For instance, in engineering, similar triangles are used in scaling down or up structures, machines, or models. In physics, they are used in optics to understand how light travels and how lenses work. In computer graphics, they are used to create 3D models and in medical imaging, they are used to create accurate representations of the human body.

## Real-World Applications of Similarity

The concept of similarity is not just an abstract mathematical concept, but something that we see and use in our daily life, often without even realizing it. For example, when we look at a map, the scale is often indicated as a ratio, which is an application of the concept of similarity. Similarly, in photography, zooming in or out is another application of similarity.

Moreover, in nature, we can find countless examples of similarity. The branching of trees, the spirals in a seashell, the structure of a snowflake, all these can be understood using the concept of similarity.

# Practical Activity

## Objective of the Project:

To familiarize students with the concept of similarity in triangles and its real-world applications. Through this project, they will understand the conditions for similarity, learn how to find the scale factor, and use this knowledge to solve real-world problems.

## Detailed Description of the Project:

This project will require students to:

1. Identify and create a collection of real-world images or objects that exhibit the concept of similarity in triangles. This could be images of buildings, bridges, trees, seashells, etc.
2. Use the principles of similarity to solve a real-world problem, such as finding the height of a tall building or the distance across a river.

The project will culminate in a detailed report that explains the concept of similarity in triangles, their real-world applications, the methodology used in the project, and the results obtained.

## Necessary Materials:

• Rulers or Measuring tapes
• Digital camera or smartphones with camera feature
• Notebook or Sketchbook
• Computer with internet access and a word processing software for report writing

## Detailed Step-by-Step for Carrying Out the Activity:

1. Form Groups of 3-5 Students: Group members should have complementary skills (e.g., Mathematics, Art, Research, and Writing).
2. Research and Collect Real-world Examples: Each group will research and gather at least five real-world examples where the concept of similarity in triangles can be applied. These could be images from the internet, photos taken by the group, or sketches made by the group members.
3. Identify and Measure Triangles: For each example, identify the triangles and measure their sides. Make sure to measure corresponding sides (sides that are in the same position in each triangle).
4. Discuss and Analyze: Discuss within the group why these triangles are similar and what conditions for similarity they meet (AA, SSS, SAS).
5. Create a Scale Model: Pick one of the images and create a scale model of it. Use the scale factor (the ratio of the lengths of corresponding sides of the two triangles) to determine the dimensions of the model.
6. Solve a Real-World Problem: Using the principles of similarity, solve a real-world problem. For example, if you know the height of a tree and its shadow, you can use similar triangles to find the height of a nearby building.
7. Write a Report: The report should include:
• Introduction: Contextualize the theme, its relevance, and real-world application. Also, state the objective of the project.
• Development: Detail the theory behind the concept of similarity in triangles, explain the activities in detail, present the methodology used, and discuss the obtained results.
• Conclusion: Conclude the work by revisiting its main points, stating the learnings obtained, and the conclusions drawn about the project.
• Bibliography: Indicate the sources relied upon to work on the project such as books, web pages, videos, etc.

The project should take approximately one week to complete, including research, discussion, practical work, and writing the report. This project should be performed in groups of 3-5 students and the final report should be written collaboratively by all group members.

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