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Project of Lewis Diagrams


Chemistry is an exciting and complex field that seeks to understand the fundamental properties and behaviors of matter. Central to this understanding is the concept of the chemical bond - the force that holds atoms together in a molecule. Lewis diagrams, also known as Lewis structures or electron dot diagrams, are a powerful tool that chemists use to represent these chemical bonds.

In the early 20th century, the American chemist Gilbert Lewis developed a simple and intuitive way to depict the chemical bonds between atoms. By representing the valence electrons, or the outermost electrons involved in chemical bonding, of an atom as dots around the atomic symbol, Lewis diagrams show how these electrons are shared or transferred between atoms to form chemical bonds.

Lewis diagrams are not only a visual representation of a molecule's structure, but they also provide important information about its chemical properties. For instance, the number and type of bonds, as well as the presence of lone pairs of electrons, can greatly influence how a molecule will react with other substances. This is why understanding Lewis diagrams is fundamental to grasping many of the concepts in chemistry.


The understanding of Lewis diagrams is crucial for a wide range of fields and professions, including medicine, engineering, and environmental science. For instance, in medicine, understanding the chemical properties of drugs, which are essentially complex molecules, is key to their effective use and development. In environmental science, understanding the chemical reactions that occur in the atmosphere can help us to better understand and mitigate the effects of pollution and climate change.

Moreover, Lewis diagrams are not just theoretical tools used by scientists in labs. They can also be used to predict and explain everyday phenomena. For example, they can help us understand why table salt (sodium chloride) is a solid at room temperature, while water (H2O) is a liquid. Both are made up of the same kinds of atoms, but the arrangement of the atoms and the types of bonds in the molecules are different, as we can see from their Lewis diagrams.


  1. Khan Academy - Lewis Structures
  2. Chem LibreTexts - Lewis Structures
  3. Crash Course Chemistry - Lewis Structures
  4. Chemistry LibreTexts - Valence Electrons

Practical Activity

Activity Title: Building Molecules with Lewis Diagrams

Objective of the Project:

To understand the concept of Lewis diagrams, their role in representing chemical bonds, and to apply this knowledge to build and represent the structures of different molecules.

Detailed Description of the Project:

In groups of 3 to 5 students, each group will choose three common molecules, such as water (H2O), methane (CH4), and carbon dioxide (CO2). The group will research the number and type of atoms in each molecule, the number of valence electrons each atom has, and how these electrons are shared or transferred to form the molecule's structure. Using this information, the group will then create a Lewis diagram for each molecule.

Necessary Materials:

  1. Internet access for research.
  2. Pen, pencil, and paper for sketching and note-taking.
  3. Colored pencils or markers for creating the Lewis diagrams.
  4. Index cards or small pieces of paper for writing the atom names and electron counts.

Detailed Step-by-Step for Carrying Out the Activity:

  1. Research: Each group will choose three molecules to work with. They will research the number and type of atoms in each molecule, the number of valence electrons each atom has, and how these electrons are shared or transferred to form the molecule's structure. This information can be found in chemistry textbooks or reliable online sources (see the resources section above for some suggestions).

  2. Plan: Once the group has gathered all the necessary information, they will plan how to represent the molecule's structure using a Lewis diagram. They should consider the number and type of bonds, the number of lone pairs of electrons, and any special rules, such as the octet rule.

  3. Draw: Using the index cards or small pieces of paper, the group will write the atom names and the number of valence electrons for each atom. They will then arrange these cards in a way that represents the molecule's structure. The valence electrons can be represented as dots around the atom cards using the colored pencils or markers.

  4. Discuss and Revise: The group should discuss each other's diagrams, looking for any errors or areas of confusion. They should make any necessary revisions to their diagrams based on this discussion.

  5. Report: Each group will then create a report documenting their activity and findings. The report should include the following sections:

    • Introduction: Contextualize the theme, explain its relevance, and state the project's objective.

    • Development: Detail the theory behind Lewis diagrams, explain the group's activity in detail, indicate the methodology used, and present and discuss the obtained results. Mention any challenges faced and how they were overcome.

    • Conclusion: Revisit the project's main points, explicitly state the learnings obtained, and the conclusions drawn about the project.

    • Bibliography: Indicate the sources relied on for the project.

Project Deliverables:

  1. Three Lewis diagrams, one for each of the chosen molecules. These should be neat, accurate, and clearly show the molecule's structure.

  2. A written report detailing the group's activity and findings. The report should be well-structured, following the format outlined above, and should demonstrate a deep understanding of Lewis diagrams and their role in representing chemical bonds.

  3. A group presentation of the project. The presentation should be clear, engaging, and should effectively communicate the group's understanding of Lewis diagrams and the process they followed to create their models.

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Physical and Chemical Properties of Matter


The world around us is made up of matter. It's in everything we see, touch, taste, and even the things we can't see, like the air. Matter is everything that has mass and takes up space. But did you know that matter can be broken down into smaller and simpler substances called elements? And these elements, in turn, have unique properties that make them different from each other? This is the fascinating study of the Physical and Chemical Properties of Matter.

In our daily life, we often encounter these properties without realizing it. For instance, the ability of a metal to conduct heat and electricity, the characteristic smell of a substance, or even the flammability of a fabric are all examples of physical and chemical properties. Understanding these properties not only helps us make sense of the world but also lays the foundation for more complex scientific concepts.

In the field of Chemistry, we explore these properties in detail. Physical properties, such as color, odor, density, and solubility, are characteristics that can be observed or measured without changing the composition of a substance. On the other hand, chemical properties, such as reactivity, flammability, and toxicity, describe how a substance changes when it reacts with other substances.

The distinction between physical and chemical properties is a fundamental concept in Chemistry. It's like understanding the difference between an apple's color (a physical property) and its ability to rot (a chemical property). By understanding and identifying these properties, we can predict how a substance might behave under different conditions, and even use this knowledge to develop new materials and technologies.

The importance of this topic goes beyond the classroom. From understanding the health risks of certain chemicals, to designing more efficient solar panels, knowledge of the physical and chemical properties of matter is crucial in many areas of science and technology. So, let's dive in and explore the building blocks of our world!

To get started, here are some resources for you to explore:

  1. Chem4Kids: Matter - This is a great resource for understanding the basics of matter and its properties.
  2. Khan Academy: Physical and Chemical Properties - This video tutorial provides a detailed explanation of physical and chemical properties.
  3. BBC Bitesize: Physical and Chemical Changes - This interactive resource helps you understand the difference between physical and chemical changes.
  4. "Chemistry: The Central Science" by Brown, LeMay, Bursten, and Murphy - This is a great reference book for understanding the deeper concepts in Chemistry.

Practical Activity

Activity Title: "Matter Matters: Exploring Physical and Chemical Properties"

Objective of the Project

The main goal of this project is to provide students with a hands-on experience in observing, identifying, and comparing physical and chemical properties of various materials. Through this activity, students will gain a deeper understanding of the properties of matter and the processes that take place during physical and chemical changes.

Detailed Description of the Project

In this project, students are divided into groups of 3 to 5. Each group will select five everyday materials (e.g., water, salt, sugar, aluminum foil, plastic, etc.) and design a series of experiments to determine their physical and chemical properties. The groups will conduct these experiments, record their observations, and compare the results.

Necessary Materials

  • Five different everyday materials (water, salt, sugar, aluminum foil, plastic, etc.)
  • A notebook and pen for each group member
  • Safety goggles and gloves
  • Access to a school lab or a safe space for conducting experiments

Detailed Step-by-Step for Carrying Out the Activity

  1. Research Phase (1 hour): Each group should start by researching the physical and chemical properties of the materials they have selected. They can use textbooks, online resources, or any other reliable source of information.

  2. Experiment Design (1 hour): Based on their research, each group should design a series of experiments to determine the physical and chemical properties of their chosen materials. For example, they might want to test the solubility of a substance in water (a physical property), or its reaction with an acid (a chemical property).

  3. Safety Check (10 minutes): Before starting their experiments, each group should conduct a safety check. They should ensure they have all the necessary safety equipment (goggles and gloves) and that they understand how to use them correctly.

  4. Experimentation (1 hour): Each group should conduct their experiments, making careful observations and recording their findings in their notebooks. They should also take note of any safety precautions they need to follow.

  5. Discussion and Analysis (45 minutes): After completing their experiments, each group should discuss their findings and compare them with their initial predictions. They should also try to explain their observations in terms of the physical and chemical properties of the materials.

  6. Report Writing (1 hour): Each group should write a report on their project, following the guidelines provided in the next section.

The total estimated time for this project is around 5 hours, to be completed over a week.

Project Deliverables and Written Document

At the end of the project, each group must submit a written document that includes the following sections:

  1. Introduction: This section should provide a brief overview of the theme, its relevance, real-world application, and the objective of this project. Students should also mention the materials they selected and why they chose them.

  2. Development: This section should be divided into two sub-sections: Theory and Activity.

    • The Theory part should explain the physical and chemical properties of matter, with a special focus on the properties the students chose to investigate. They should also describe how these properties can be determined and why they are important in the study of matter.

    • The Activity part should detail the experiments the students conducted, how they were carried out, and the results they obtained. They should also discuss these results in the context of the theory, highlighting any discrepancies or interesting observations.

  3. Conclusion: This section should revisit the main points of the project, state the learnings obtained and the conclusions drawn from the project.

  4. Bibliography: This section should list all the sources of information used in the project, such as books, websites, videos, etc.

The written report should be well-structured, with each section clearly labeled and the information presented in a logical and coherent manner. It should be in the format of a scientific report, using clear and concise language, and giving credit to all the sources of information used.

Finally, the students should also prepare a brief presentation to share their project with the class. This presentation should include an overview of the project, the experiments conducted, the results obtained, and the conclusions drawn. It should be engaging, understandable for their classmates, and should not exceed 10 minutes.

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Inorganic Functions: Bases


Introduction to Bases

Chemistry, as we all know, is the science of matter and its interactions. One of the fundamental concepts in this vast field is the concept of inorganic functions, which include acids and bases. In this project, we will be focusing on one of these functions: Bases.

A base is a substance that can accept a proton (H+) or donate an electron pair in reactions. They are usually slippery to touch and have a bitter taste. The pH scale, which ranges from 0 to 14, indicates the acidity or basicity of a solution. Solutions with a pH less than 7 are said to be acidic, while those with a pH greater than 7 are basic.

The Role of Bases in Everyday Life and Industry

Bases are not just abstract concepts we study in chemistry textbooks; they have a significant impact on our everyday life and various industries. For instance, baking soda and antacids (like Tums) that we use in our homes are bases. They work by neutralizing excess acid in the stomach and relieving symptoms of heartburn.

In industries, bases are used in a wide range of applications. For example, they are used in the production of paper, soaps, and detergents. They are also used in wastewater treatment to neutralize acidity and balance the pH of the water before it is released into the environment.

Resources for Further Understanding

To delve deeper into the topic and enhance your understanding, you can refer to the following resources:

  1. Khan Academy: Acids, bases, and pH
  2. Chem LibreTexts: Acids and Bases
  3. BBC Bitesize: Acids and bases
  4. YouTube: Acids and Bases by The Organic Chemistry Tutor

Remember, understanding the role of bases in our world is not only essential for your chemistry class but also for your day-to-day life.

Practical Activity

Activity Title: "Exploring Bases: From Home Remedies to Industrial Use"

Objective of the Project:

The main goal of this project is to explore the properties and applications of bases. The students will identify, investigate, and report on different bases that are commonly used in our daily lives and industries. They will also conduct a simple experiment to understand the basic properties of bases.

Detailed Description of the Project:

In this project, students will work in groups of 3 to 5 to perform research on bases. They will identify different bases used in everyday life and industries, understand their properties, and explore their role in various applications. Additionally, students will carry out an experiment to see how a base reacts with an acid.

Necessary Materials:

  1. A variety of common household items to test as bases (such as baking soda, antacid tablets, milk of magnesia, and ammonia).
  2. Distilled water.
  3. Vinegar (which is an acid).
  4. pH paper (or a pH meter, if available).
  5. Safety goggles and gloves.

Detailed Step-by-step for Carrying out the Activity:

  1. Research Phase: The group should start by researching about bases. They should find out what bases are, their properties, and their role in everyday life and industries.

  2. Identification Phase: The group should identify different bases that are commonly used in our daily lives and industries. They should make a list of these bases and explain their applications.

  3. **Experiment Phase:**The group should perform a simple experiment to observe the reaction between a base and an acid. The students should dissolve a small amount of each base in water and then add a few drops of vinegar (which is an acid) to each solution. They should observe and record the changes (if any) in each solution.

  4. Report Writing: After conducting the experiment, the group should compile a detailed report on their findings. The report should include the following sections:

    • Introduction: This section should provide a brief overview of the project, including the relevance of studying bases and the objective of the project.

    • Development: This section should detail the theoretical concepts related to bases, the methodology used in the experiment, the results obtained, and a discussion of these results.

    • Conclusions: Here, the group should revisit the main points of their work, state the learnings obtained, and draw conclusions about the project.

    • Bibliography: The group should list the sources they used for their research and to prepare the project.

Project Deliveries:

The final delivery for this project will be a written report and a presentation of the findings. The report should be well-structured, with each section clearly identified. The presentation should be engaging and informative, highlighting the key points of the project.

The written report and the presentation should cover the following aspects:

  • Understanding of bases: The group should demonstrate their understanding of what bases are, their properties, and their role in daily life and industries.

  • Identified bases and their applications: The group should provide a comprehensive list of bases they identified and explain their applications.

  • Experiment and findings: The group should detail the experiment they conducted, the methodology they used, and the results they obtained. They should also discuss what these results mean in the context of bases.

  • Conclusion: The group should revisit the main points of the project, state the learnings they obtained, and draw conclusions about the project.

  • Bibliography: The group should list the resources they used to carry out the project and write the report.

This project should take about five hours per student to complete and should be submitted within one week after it is assigned. The group should manage their time effectively to carry out the research, conduct the experiment, write the report, and prepare the presentation.

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Mixing Substances Results


Chemistry, as a fundamental science, is all around us. It is the study of matter - its properties, structure, composition, behavior, reactions, and the changes it undergoes during chemical reactions. One of the most intriguing aspects of chemistry is mixing substances and observing the results, which often involves chemical reactions.

Whether it's the fizzing sound you hear when you mix baking soda with vinegar, the rust that forms on an iron nail when exposed to water, or the explosion you get when you combine Mentos with Diet Coke, these are all examples of chemical reactions.

The Importance of Mixing Substances

Understanding how substances interact is essential in various fields such as pharmaceuticals, biology, environmental science, and even cooking. In the pharmaceutical industry, for example, chemists need to know how different drugs interact with each other to produce the desired effect in the body.

In cooking, understanding the chemical reactions that occur when you mix ingredients can help you create better-tasting food. For example, when baking a cake, baking soda reacts with an acid (like vinegar or buttermilk) to produce carbon dioxide gas, which makes the cake rise.

The Science Behind Mixing Substances

When two or more substances are mixed together, they can undergo several types of reactions, including combination, decomposition, displacement, and double displacement reactions. In a combination reaction, two or more substances combine to form a new compound.

In a decomposition reaction, a compound breaks down into two or more simpler substances. In a displacement reaction, one element takes the place of another element in a compound. In a double displacement reaction, the positive ions of two ionic compounds are interchanged.

These reactions can also be classified as exothermic (releasing heat) or endothermic (absorbing heat) depending on whether they give off or absorb energy in the form of heat.

Resources for Further Understanding

To delve deeper into the topic, you can refer to the following resources:

  1. "General Chemistry: Principles and Modern Applications" by Ralph H. Petrucci, F. Geoffrey Herring, Jeffry D. Madura, Carey Bissonnette.
  2. Khan Academy's Chemistry Course
  3. YouTube Channels: "The Organic Chemistry Tutor", "Crash Course Chemistry"
  4. Interactive learning sites like Chem4Kids and American Chemical Society

Remember, the goal of this project is not just to understand the science behind mixing substances, but also to foster teamwork, problem-solving, and creative thinking.

Practical Activity

Activity Title: "Substance Symphony: The Chemistry of Mixing"


The main objective of this project is to investigate the various types of reactions that occur when different substances are mixed together. This will involve the observation of color changes, gas production, and temperature changes. Additionally, the project aims to promote collaborative teamwork, problem-solving skills, and creative thinking.

Detailed Description

In this project, your group will be conducting a series of chemical reactions by mixing various substances together. Each reaction will be carefully observed and recorded, noting any changes in color, gas production, and temperature. The project will culminate in a report detailing the reactions and the students' understanding of the chemical processes at work.

The project will be carried out over an extensive period of one month, allowing ample time for research, experimentation, analysis, and report writing.

Necessary Materials

  1. Safety goggles
  2. Lab coats or aprons
  3. Gloves
  4. Test tubes and test tube rack
  5. Beakers
  6. Various substances for mixing (vinegar, baking soda, salt, sugar, copper sulfate, iron nails, etc.)
  7. Thermometer
  8. Stopwatch or Timer
  9. Notebook for recording observations
  10. Camera or mobile phone for capturing images or videos of reactions (optional)

Detailed Step-by-Step for Carrying Out the Activity

  1. Step 1: Safety First - Before starting any experiment, ensure that you are wearing safety goggles, lab coats or aprons, and gloves to protect yourself from any potential hazards.

  2. Step 2: Experiment Design - Decide on the substances you want to mix and the reactions you want to observe. Plan your experiments in detail, including the quantities of each substance that you will use.

  3. Step 3: Carrying Out the Experiments - Carry out each experiment one at a time, following your planned procedure. Make sure to carefully observe and note any changes that occur during the reaction (color changes, gas production, temperature changes, etc.). You may also want to capture these changes with a camera or mobile phone for your report.

  4. Step 4: Safety Disposal - After every reaction, ensure proper disposal of the reaction mixture as per the teacher's instructions.

  5. Step 5: Recording Observations - Record your observations in detail in your notebook. Be sure to note down the substances used, the quantities, the changes observed, and the time it took for the reaction to occur.

  6. Step 6: Repeating Experiments - For particularly interesting or important reactions, consider repeating the experiment to ensure accuracy and reliability of your results.

  7. Step 7: Cleanup and Safety Inspection - After you have completed all your experiments, clean up your workspace and ensure that all chemicals and materials are stored safely.

Project Deliveries

At the end of the practical activity, the student group will submit a written report in the format of a document. This report will detail the procedures, the observations made, the conclusions drawn, and the learnings obtained from the project.

The report should be divided into the following sections:

  1. Introduction: Contextualize the theme of mixing substances. State the objective of the project and its real-world applications. Also, mention the substances chosen for the experiments and why you selected them.

  2. Development: Detail the experiments carried out, the methods used, and the observations recorded. Discuss the theories of chemical reactions that were applied in the experiments, and explain how these theories help us understand the reactions observed.

  3. Conclusions: Summarize the main outcomes of the project. Discuss the reactions that were observed and the changes that occurred during these reactions. Reflect on what you have learned about the chemistry of mixing substances.

  4. Bibliography: Indicate all the resources you consulted to work on the project. These may include books, web pages, videos, etc.

Remember, the report is not just a summary of your activities but also a reflection of your understanding and learning process. So, be sure to include all relevant details and insights from your experiments.

Finally, each group will present their findings to the class, explaining the reactions they observed and what they learned from the project. This will help to foster communication, presentation, and public speaking skills.

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