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Project of Evolution: Natural Selection


Evolution, one of the cornerstones of modern biology, is a process that has shaped life on Earth for billions of years. The theory of natural selection, proposed by Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace, is a fundamental mechanism of evolution. Natural selection acts on the variation that exists within populations, favoring traits that improve an organism's chances of survival and reproduction. Over time, this can lead to the emergence of new species.

Natural selection is not a linear, predictable process. Instead, it is influenced by a variety of factors, including the environment, competition, and random genetic mutations. These factors can lead to the evolution of diverse species and the development of complex biological structures and behaviors.

Understanding evolution and natural selection is not only important for biology but also for many other scientific disciplines. It helps us understand the diversity of life on Earth, the origins of human beings, and the spread of diseases. Additionally, it has practical applications in fields such as medicine and agriculture, where knowledge of evolution can be used to combat drug resistance or improve crop yields.


To begin our project, we recommend reviewing the following resources:

  1. Khan Academy: Evolution and Natural Selection: This is a comprehensive resource that covers the basics of evolution and natural selection. It includes videos, quizzes, and articles.

  2. BBC Bitesize: Natural Selection: This resource provides a clear explanation of natural selection, including some real-world examples. It also includes a short quiz to test your understanding.

  3. National Geographic: Evolution: This resource provides an overview of the theory of evolution, including natural selection. It includes a timeline of key events in the history of life on Earth.

  4. Book: "The Making of the Fittest" by Sean B. Carroll: This book explores the process of evolution and natural selection through fascinating examples from the animal kingdom. It is written in a clear, accessible style and includes helpful illustrations.

All of these resources will provide a solid foundation in the theory and practice of evolution and natural selection. As you work through them, think about how the concepts of variation, competition, and survival apply to the world around you. These ideas are not just abstract theories; they are fundamental principles that shape the living world.

Practical Activity: "Survival of the Fittest: A Natural Selection Simulation"

Objective of the Project

To allow students to simulate the process of natural selection and understand how it leads to the evolution of species in response to changes in the environment.

Detailed Description of the Project

In this project, students will be divided into groups of 3 to 5. Each group will be responsible for creating a simulated ecosystem and introducing a change in the environment. They will then observe how this change affects the survival and reproduction of different "species" in the ecosystem over several "generations". The goal is to demonstrate how natural selection can lead to the evolution of species that are better adapted to their environment.

Necessary Materials

  • Paper and pens for planning and recording observations
  • Small objects to represent different species (e.g., colored beads, beans, or paper clips)
  • A timer
  • A small container to represent the environment

Detailed Step-by-Step for Carrying Out the Activity

  1. Planning: Each group should begin by planning their simulation. They should decide on the different "species" that will live in their ecosystem and what characteristics each species will have. They should also decide what change they will introduce into the environment (e.g., a new predator, a change in climate, etc.).

  2. Setting up the Ecosystem: Once the planning is complete, the group should set up their ecosystem. They should place a certain number of each species in the environment and ensure that each species has enough resources to survive and reproduce.

  3. Running the Simulation: The group should start the timer and let the simulation run for a certain period of time (e.g., 10 minutes). During this time, they should record any changes in the population of each species and any changes in the characteristics of the species.

  4. Introducing the Change: After the first generation, the group should introduce the change into the environment. This might involve removing some resources, adding a new predator, etc.

  5. Repeating the Process: The group should then repeat steps 3 and 4 for several generations, recording their observations after each generation.

  6. Finishing the Simulation: After the final generation, the group should stop the timer and analyze their results.

Project Deliveries

At the end of the project, each group will need to submit the following:

  1. A Written Report: This report should be divided into four main sections: Introduction, Development, Conclusions, and Used Bibliography.

    • In the Introduction, students should provide a brief overview of the theory of natural selection and explain the objective of their simulation.
    • In the Development section, they should detail the methodology used, describe their observations during the simulation, and explain how these observations relate to the theory of natural selection.
    • In the Conclusion, they should summarize their findings and reflect on what they learned from the project.
    • The Bibliography should include all the sources they consulted during the project.
  2. A Presentation: Each group will also need to give a short presentation summarizing their project. The presentation should include a description of their simulation, a discussion of their findings, and a reflection on the process of carrying out the project.

Through this practical activity, students will not only gain a deeper understanding of the process of natural selection but also develop important skills such as problem-solving, collaboration, and creative thinking.

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Energy in Animals’ Food


The energy that fuels our bodies and allows us to do everything from running to thinking comes from the food we eat. This energy-rich food comes in the form of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats, and is broken down through a process called digestion. The energy released is then stored as a molecule called ATP (adenosine triphosphate), which is used by our cells as a source of energy.

However, the energy stored in food isn't a form that our bodies can directly use. It must be converted into ATP through a series of biochemical reactions. This process is called cellular respiration, and it occurs in the mitochondria of our cells.

Animals, including humans, are heterotrophs, which means they must consume other organisms or their by-products to get the energy they need. This energy is transferred through a food chain or food web from producers (plants) to consumers (animals) and then to decomposers (bacteria and fungi).

Understanding the process of energy transfer in animals is crucial for understanding how ecosystems function. It allows us to understand how energy flows from the sun, through plants, to herbivores, carnivores, and decomposers. It also helps us understand how changes in one part of the food web can affect other parts.


The energy in our food is ultimately derived from the sun. It is captured by plants through a process called photosynthesis, where they use sunlight, carbon dioxide, and water to produce glucose and oxygen. This glucose is used by plants to provide energy for growth and reproduction.

When animals eat plants, they consume this stored energy. Some of the energy is used by the animal to power its own body functions, and some is stored as fat or used for growth and reproduction. When animals eat other animals, they are getting the energy that those animals obtained by eating plants.

This transfer of energy from one organism to another is never 100% efficient. Some energy is always lost as heat, and some is used by the organism for things like movement and digestion. This is why there are typically fewer top predators in an ecosystem than there are herbivores. There simply isn't enough energy available to support large numbers of top predators.


  1. Khan Academy: Energy flow and primary productivity
  2. BBC Bitesize: Food chains and energy transfer
  3. National Geographic: Energy in ecosystems
  4. Science Learning Hub: Energy flow through ecosystems
  5. YouTube: The Energy Rule in a Food Chain
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Ecosystem: Introduction


Introduction to Ecosystems

Ecosystems are complex, interconnected systems involving both living organisms and their physical environments. They can be as small as a puddle or as large as the entire planet, and they can be found in a variety of environments, from the deepest parts of the ocean to the driest deserts.

In every ecosystem, there are two main components: biotic and abiotic. Biotic factors include all living things, from the largest elephant to the tiniest microorganism. They interact with each other and with the abiotic, or non-living, factors in their environment, such as sunlight, temperature, and water.

These interactions are the key to understanding how ecosystems function. They involve processes like energy flow, nutrient cycling, and the interactions between species. The study of ecosystems is not only fascinating but also crucial for understanding our world and how we can protect it.

The Importance of Studying Ecosystems

Ecosystems provide us with a multitude of services, known as ecosystem services, that are essential for our survival and well-being. These services include the production of oxygen, the provision of food, the regulation of climate, the purification of water, and the control of pests, among others.

However, human activities, such as deforestation, pollution, and climate change, are placing these services at risk. By understanding how ecosystems function and how they are impacted by human activities, we can make informed decisions and take action to protect them.


To deepen your understanding of ecosystems, you can use the following resources:

  1. Khan Academy: Ecosystems
  2. National Geographic: Ecosystems
  3. BBC Bitesize: Ecosystems
  4. Book: "Ecology: Concepts and Applications" by Manuel C. Molles Jr.
  5. Video: How Wolves Change Rivers

Remember, the study of ecosystems is not only about learning facts but also about understanding the processes and interactions that shape our world. So, let's dive in and explore the fascinating world of ecosystems!

Practical Activity

Activity Title: "Ecosystem in a Jar"

Objective of the Project:

The main goal of this project is to simulate an ecosystem in a jar, understand the interactions between biotic and abiotic factors, and observe how changes in those factors can impact the system.

Detailed Description of the Project:

In this project, students will create a mini-ecosystem in a jar, also known as a closed terrarium. This terrarium will contain all the necessary elements for a small-scale ecosystem to thrive, including plants, soil, and small organisms such as insects or microorganisms.

The students will then observe and document the changes that occur within their mini-ecosystem over a period of time. They will also conduct experiments to observe the effects of changes in the abiotic factors, such as light and temperature, on the biotic factors in the system.

Necessary Materials:

  1. A large, clear plastic or glass jar with a lid
  2. Gravel or pebbles
  3. Activated charcoal (available at pet stores)
  4. Potting soil
  5. Small plants (such as moss or ferns)
  6. Small insects or microorganisms (optional)
  7. Water
  8. A notebook for recording observations

Detailed Step-by-Step for Carrying Out the Activity:

  1. Preparing the Jar: Start by adding a layer of gravel or pebbles to the bottom of the jar. This will serve as a drainage layer. On top of the gravel, add a thin layer of activated charcoal. This will help to keep the terrarium free from odors and mold.

  2. Adding the Soil and Plants: Add a layer of potting soil on top of the charcoal. Plant the small plants in the soil, making sure they have enough space to grow.

  3. Adding the Organisms: If you have access to small insects or microorganisms, carefully add them to the terrarium. Otherwise, the plants and soil alone will create a functioning ecosystem.

  4. Sealing the Jar: Once everything is in place, seal the jar with the lid. This will create a closed system, where all the necessary elements for life are contained within the jar.

  5. Observing and Documenting: Over the next few weeks, observe the terrarium regularly and record your observations in your notebook. Pay attention to changes in the plants, any new organisms that appear, and any changes in the environment (such as the amount of condensation on the inside of the jar).

  6. Experimenting with Abiotic Factors: To understand how changes in the abiotic factors can impact the biotic factors, you can conduct a few simple experiments. For example, you can place the terrarium in a darker or cooler place and observe how this impacts the growth of the plants.

  7. Reflecting and Concluding: At the end of the project, write a report detailing your observations, the experiments you conducted, and your conclusions about how the different factors in your mini-ecosystem interact.

Project Deliverables:

At the end of the project, each group will submit a written report following the structure below:

  1. Introduction: Contextualize the theme of ecosystems, its relevance, and the objective of this project.

  2. Development: Detail the theory behind the creation of a mini-ecosystem, the process you followed, and the activities you conducted. Include the methodology used and a description of your mini-ecosystem.

  3. Observations: Present the observations you made over the course of the project. This can include changes in the plants, the appearance of new organisms, and any other interesting phenomena you observed.

  4. Experiments and Results: Detail the experiments you conducted and the results you obtained. Discuss how these results helped you understand the interactions between the different factors in your mini-ecosystem.

  5. Conclusion: Summarize the main points of your project and state the conclusions you drew from it.

  6. Bibliography: List all the resources you used to work on the project, including books, websites, and videos.

This report should not only demonstrate your understanding of ecosystem concepts but also your ability to work as a team, manage your time, and problem-solve. It should be a thorough and engaging account of your journey into the world of ecosystems.

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Foodwebs: Introduction



Food webs are an essential concept in biology, representing the intricate interconnections between species in an ecosystem. These interconnections highlight the flow of energy and matter within a community of organisms, ultimately illustrating the concept of "who eats whom" in a given ecosystem.

A food web is a more accurate representation of the feeding relationships in an ecosystem than a food chain. While a food chain simply follows the connection between one producer and a single chain of consumers, a food web shows the complex and multiple feeding relationships within an ecosystem, where organisms can occupy more than one trophic level and can have several predators and preys.

Theoretical Context

Food webs consist of three main types of organisms: producers, consumers, and decomposers. Producers, such as plants, algae, and some bacteria, convert energy from the sun (through photosynthesis) or from inorganic substances (through chemosynthesis) into chemical energy, which is stored as food. Consumers, including herbivores, carnivores, and omnivores, obtain their energy by consuming other organisms or their products. Decomposers, such as fungi and bacteria, break down dead organisms and waste, recycling the nutrients back into the ecosystem.

Understanding food webs is crucial to comprehending the delicate balance of ecosystems and the potential impacts of changes within these systems. They help scientists predict how changes in one species' population can affect others, providing insights into ecological stability and biodiversity.

Real-World Relevance

The concept of food webs has a direct impact on our daily lives and the health of our planet. For instance, by understanding the food web in an agricultural system, farmers can make informed decisions to maintain crop health, manage pests, and promote a balanced ecosystem.

On a larger scale, the study of food webs helps us comprehend the effects of human activities, such as deforestation, pollution, and overfishing, on various species and ecosystems. For instance, overfishing can lead to an increase in certain predator populations, which in turn can negatively affect other species lower down the food chain.


  1. Khan Academy: Food chains & food webs
  2. National Geographic: Food-web
  3. BBC Bitesize: Food chains and food webs
  4. NASA: Food Webs
  5. Book: "Food Webs: From Connectivity to Energetics" by Gary A. Polis.

These resources provide a solid introduction to food webs, their components, and their importance in the ecosystem. They also offer real-world examples and case studies, allowing students to explore the concept in a practical and engaging manner.

Practical Activity

Activity Title: Building a Food Web

Objective of the Project:

The aim of this project is to understand the complexity of food webs in an ecosystem, to comprehend the interdependence of species within a community, and to learn how disturbances in one population can affect the entire ecosystem.

Detailed Description of the Project:

In this group project, you will create a visual representation of a food web for a specific ecosystem. You will research the species that exist in your chosen ecosystem, their roles as producers, consumers, or decomposers, and their interactions within the food web. The final product will be a detailed and accurate diagram of the food web, along with a written description explaining its components and dynamics.

Necessary Materials:

  • Poster board or large paper
  • Markers or colored pencils
  • Access to the internet or library for research
  • Notebook for taking notes
  • Access to presentation software (for the digital component, if desired)

Detailed Step-by-Step for Carrying Out the Activity:

  1. Form a Group: Divide into groups of 3-5 students.
  2. Choose an Ecosystem: Each group will select a specific ecosystem to focus on, such as a rainforest, a desert, a coral reef, or a grassland.
  3. Research: Using the provided resources and any additional resources you find, research the species in your chosen ecosystem. Identify at least 10 organisms, including plants, herbivores, carnivores, and decomposers.
  4. Identify Roles: Determine the role each organism plays in the food web (producer, consumer, decomposer) and its position in the trophic levels.
  5. Sketch the Food Web: Start sketching out your food web on the poster board. Use arrows to indicate the direction of energy flow, from the producers to the consumers and eventually to the decomposers. Use different colors to represent different trophic levels.
  6. Refine and Label: As you work, refine your diagram to ensure it accurately reflects the interactions within your chosen ecosystem. Label each organism and its role within the food web.
  7. Prepare a Written Report: Write a detailed report documenting your research, the process of creating the food web, and the final product. The report should be divided into four main sections: Introduction, Development, Conclusions, and Used Bibliography.
    • Introduction: Contextualize the theme, its relevance, and real-world application. Also, state the objective of this project.
    • Development: Detail the theory behind food webs, explain your methodology, present and discuss your results (the food web diagram), and indicate the sources you used for your research.
    • Conclusion: Revisit the main points of your project, explicitly state the learnings obtained and the conclusions drawn about the project.
    • Bibliography: Indicate the sources (books, web pages, videos, etc.) you used to work on the project.
  8. Present Your Work: Each group will present their food web to the class, explaining the species involved, their roles, and the dynamics of the food web in their chosen ecosystem.

The project should take approximately one week to complete, with an estimated workload of 2-4 hours per student.

Project Deliverables:

  • A detailed and accurately drawn food web diagram on a poster board.
  • A written report following the provided structure.
  • A class presentation of the food web, demonstrating understanding of the complex interactions within the ecosystem.

Project Grading:

The project will be evaluated on the following criteria:

  1. Accuracy of the Food Web: Does the food web accurately represent the chosen ecosystem? Are the roles of each species correctly identified?
  2. Depth of Research: Did the group demonstrate a thorough understanding of the chosen ecosystem and its food web? Did they use a variety of reliable sources?
  3. Understanding of the Concept: Does the written report and the presentation show a clear understanding of food webs and their importance in ecosystems?
  4. Collaboration: Did the group work effectively together? Did each student contribute to the project?
  5. Creativity and Presentation: Is the food web visually appealing and easy to understand? Was the presentation engaging and informative?

Grades will be given based on the quality of the food web diagram, the depth of the written report, and the clarity and effectiveness of the presentation. The written report should provide an in-depth understanding of the chosen ecosystem and food web, while the presentation should demonstrate clear communication and a strong understanding of the concept.

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