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Project of Clauses to Create Cohesion


Introduction to Clauses and Cohesion

Clauses are a fundamental aspect of the English language. Essentially, they are groups of words that contain a subject and a predicate and are used to form sentences. However, they are not all created equal. There are two main types of clauses: dependent (subordinate) clauses and independent (main) clauses. Dependent clauses cannot stand alone as a sentence, while independent clauses can.

Cohesion, on the other hand, refers to the logical and semantic connections between sentences and paragraphs in a text. It is created through the use of various cohesive devices, one of them being clauses. By using different types of clauses in a text, writers can create relationships between ideas, which contributes to the overall cohesion of the text.

Importance and Real-World Application

Understanding how to use clauses to create cohesion is a crucial skill in both reading and writing. When reading, being able to identify different types of clauses and their function in a text can help with comprehension. Moreover, recognizing how clauses are used to create cohesion can aid in understanding the author's intended message.

In writing, using clauses effectively can make your text more cohesive and coherent. It can help to structure your ideas and guide your readers through your text. Knowing how to use clauses to create cohesion can also enhance your ability to write more complex sentences, which can make your writing more engaging and sophisticated.

In the real world, this skill is not only important for those pursuing a career in English or literature but also for professionals in various fields. Whether you are writing an essay, a report, a blog post, or a business proposal, using clauses to create cohesion can make your writing more effective and persuasive.


To deepen your understanding of clauses and their role in creating cohesion, you can refer to the following reliable resources:

  1. Grammarly's Guide to Clauses - This guide provides a clear explanation of different types of clauses and how they function in a sentence.
  2. Purdue Online Writing Lab's Guide to Cohesion - This guide explains the concept of cohesion and offers strategies for achieving it in your writing.
  3. Khan Academy's Lessons on Clauses - These lessons include videos and practice exercises to help you master the use of clauses.
  4. BBC Bitesize's Guide to Cohesion - This guide offers a simple, step-by-step explanation of how to create cohesion in your writing.

Remember, the more you practice using clauses to create cohesion, the more natural it will become, and the more effective your writing will be. So, let's dive in and explore this exciting topic together!

Practical Activity

Title: "Cohesion Clauses Creation"

Objective of the Project

The main objective of this project is to develop a comprehensive understanding of clauses, specifically how they can be used to create cohesion in a text. By the end of the project, students should be able to:

  1. Define and differentiate between dependent (subordinate) and independent (main) clauses.
  2. Use clauses effectively to create cohesion in a written text.
  3. Understand the importance and real-world application of using clauses to create cohesion.

Detailed Description of the Project

In this group project, students will work together to create a short story. However, there's a twist: each student will be responsible for writing a different part of the story, and these parts must be connected using clauses to create cohesion. In addition, each part must contain at least two dependent clauses and two independent clauses, and these clauses must be used effectively to create cohesion within each part and throughout the entire story.

Necessary Materials

  • Writing materials (paper, pen/pencil) or a computer with word processing software.
  • Internet access for research purposes (if necessary).

Detailed Step-by-Step for Carrying Out the Activity

Step 1: Forming Groups and Assigning Roles (Approximate Time: 10 minutes)

Form groups of 3 to 5 students. Within each group, assign each student a different part of the story to write. For instance, one student could be responsible for the introduction, another for the conflict, another for the resolution, and so on. Make sure each part is of roughly the same length and complexity.

Step 2: Brainstorming and Planning (Approximate Time: 15 minutes)

As a group, brainstorm ideas for your story. Discuss how you can connect each part using clauses and how you can use these clauses to create cohesion within each part. Make a rough outline of your story, indicating how each part will flow into the next.

Step 3: Writing and Revision (Approximate Time: 30 minutes)

Each student should now write their assigned part of the story, making sure to use at least two dependent clauses and two independent clauses effectively to create cohesion. Remember to check your work for grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors. Revise and edit your part as necessary.

Step 4: Assembling the Story and Final Revision (Approximate Time: 15 minutes)

Once all parts are complete, assemble them in the correct order to create the full story. Read through the entire story as a group, checking for cohesion and making any necessary revisions.

Step 5: Reflection and Report Writing (Approximate Time: 30 minutes)

As a group, reflect on the process and the outcome. Discuss how you used clauses to create cohesion in your story and what you learned from this project. Each student should then contribute to writing the report, following the provided structure: Introduction, Development, Conclusion, and Used Bibliography.

Project Deliverables

  1. A short story written collaboratively by the group, with each student contributing a different part of the story. The story should effectively use clauses to create cohesion both within each part and throughout the entire story.

  2. A group report detailing the process and outcome of the project. The report should include:

    • Introduction: The students should contextualize the theme of the project, its relevance, and real-world application. They should also state the objective(s) of the project.

    • Development: The students should detail the theory behind the main topics of the project: clauses and cohesion. They should explain the activity in detail, indicate the methodology used, and present and discuss the obtained results.

    • Conclusion: Revisit the main points of the project, explicitly stating the learnings obtained and the conclusions drawn about the project.

    • Bibliography: Indicate the sources used to work on the project such as books, web pages, videos, etc.

Remember, the story and the report should demonstrate not only your understanding of the topic but also your ability to work collaboratively, think creatively, and solve problems. Happy writing!

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Words with Similar Denotations



In the vast landscape of the English language, certain words hold a similar meaning, yet differ in their connotations and usage. These words, known as synonyms, can be a powerful tool for writers, speakers, and communicators, enabling them to craft their messages with precision and nuance. Synonyms are not simply interchangeable words; they carry different shades of meaning that allow us to express ideas in a more nuanced and subtle way.

Exploring the world of synonyms can be both fascinating and challenging. It requires a deep understanding of word usage, context, and the subtle differences in meaning. Additionally, it necessitates an appreciation for the richness and complexity of the English language.


Words with similar denotations but different connotations play a significant role in our everyday communication. They can profoundly impact how a message is perceived, and thus, understanding these nuances is vital.

For example, consider the following sentence: "The politician was very determined to pass the law." Here, the word 'determined' conveys a positive sense of persistence and willpower. However, if we were to replace 'determined' with 'stubborn', the sentence would take on a negative connotation, implying an inflexible and unyielding approach.

This simple example illustrates how synonyms can carry different shades of meaning and evoke distinct emotional responses. In a world where effective communication is paramount, this understanding is invaluable.


  1. Thesaurus.com - This online resource is an excellent tool for finding synonyms and understanding their subtle differences in meaning.
  2. Book: "Roget's International Thesaurus" - This comprehensive thesaurus provides a wealth of synonyms and is a great resource for understanding the nuances of word usage.
  3. Vocabulary.com - This website not only provides a list of synonyms but also offers quizzes and games to test your understanding.
  4. Merriam-Webster Dictionary - An online dictionary with a robust thesaurus feature, providing a wealth of synonyms for each word.
  5. Video: TED-Ed: The Power of a Synonym - This engaging video explains the importance of synonyms and how they can be employed to enrich our communication.

By diving into this project, you will not only gain a deeper understanding of the English language but also enhance your communication skills, empowering you to express your thoughts and ideas more effectively.

Practical Activity

Activity Title

Exploring the Synonymic Spectrum: A Word Voyage through Similar Denotations

Objective of the Project

The main objective of this project is for students to gain a deeper understanding of words with similar denotations yet different connotations, their usage in context, and their impact on communication. By the end of the project, students should be able to identify, compare, and use synonyms effectively in their own writing, thereby enhancing their language skills and improving their ability to express nuanced ideas.

Detailed Description of the Project

This project will involve group work where each group will be provided with a list of words. The students will be required to research the synonyms of these words, understand their differences in meaning and connotations, and create a comprehensive report detailing their findings.

The report will cover four main areas: Introduction, Development, Conclusions, and Used Bibliography. The Introduction will contextualize the theme, its relevance, and real-world application. The Development section will detail the theory behind the project, the steps undertaken, and the results obtained. The Conclusion will summarize the project's main points, learnings, and conclusions drawn. The Used Bibliography will list all the resources used in the project, including books, websites, videos, etc.

The project will take approximately five to ten hours to complete and will be submitted at the end of the one-month period.

Necessary Materials

  1. Internet access for research
  2. Paper and pen for note-taking and brainstorming
  3. Word processing software like Microsoft Word or Google Docs for report writing

Detailed Step-by-Step for Carrying Out the Activity

  1. Group Formation (30 minutes): Form groups of 3 to 5 students. Each group should select a group leader who will be responsible for coordinating tasks and ensuring that everyone is participating.

  2. Word Assignment (30 minutes): Each group will be given a list of words. The list should contain 10 to 15 words with similar denotations but different connotations.

  3. Research (2-4 hours): The group should start by researching the meanings of the assigned words using a trusted dictionary. Next, they should find synonyms for each word using tools like Thesaurus.com, Merriam-Webster, or Roget's International Thesaurus.

  4. Word Analysis (1-2 hours): The group should then analyze the synonyms, noting their differences in meaning and connotations. They should also identify examples of how these words are used in real-world context (e.g., news articles, books, etc.).

  5. Report Writing (1-3 hours): Using their research and analysis, the group should write a comprehensive report following the format provided.

  6. Report Review (30 minutes - 1 hour): After the report is completed, each group member should review it for accuracy and completeness. The group leader should ensure that everyone has contributed to the report and make any necessary revisions.

  7. Final Report Submission: The group should submit their final report by the end of the one-month period.

Project Deliverables

  1. A Comprehensive Report: This report will detail the group's findings and learnings. It will be structured into four main sections: Introduction, Development, Conclusion, and Used Bibliography.

    • Introduction: This section will provide a context for the theme, explain its real-world application, and state the project's objectives.
    • Development: Here, the group will explain the theory behind the project, detail the steps they took, and present their findings. This section should also include a discussion on the methodology used.
    • Conclusion: The group will summarize the main points of their project, state their learnings, and draw conclusions about the project.
    • Used Bibliography: The group will list all the resources they used in their project.
  2. Presentation: Each group will present their findings to the class. The presentation should be engaging and informative, highlighting the main points from their report and sharing any interesting discoveries they made during their research.

  3. Peer Review: After each presentation, the class will have an opportunity to ask questions and provide feedback on each group's work.

At the end of the project, students should have a deeper understanding of synonyms, their usage, and their impact on communication. They should also have improved their research, writing, and presentation skills.

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Individuals Events



In the vast realm of literature, there is a writing style that is often used to convey a story or message in a way that is engaging and thought-provoking. This style, known as "Individual Events," focuses on the development of characters and their interactions within a specific event or a series of closely related events.

Individual events can be seen as a microcosm of life, offering an intense exposure to human emotions, reactions, and decisions. These events may be significant on their own or as part of a larger narrative, but the key point is that they offer a concentrated, intimate look at the characters and their lives that can sometimes provide a deeper understanding of the human condition.

Theoretical Framework

This project is firmly rooted in the realm of English Literature. It will allow students to delve into the world of Individual Events, a narrative technique utilized by authors across genres and eras.

By understanding how authors construct and manipulate individual events, we can gain insights into the characters' emotional journeys, the themes of the story, and the social and cultural contexts in which these events take place.

From the psychological perspective, this project will enable students to explore the concept of "momentary madness" or the idea that people's actions and decisions in certain moments can be influenced by a multitude of factors, sometimes leading to unexpected outcomes.

From a socio-cultural standpoint, the project will encourage students to think about how individual events can reflect broader societal issues and power dynamics. This can include topics like gender roles, class struggles, and cultural norms.

Real-world Application

Understanding individual events is not just a theoretical concept confined to the classroom. It has real-world implications and applications.

For example, in the field of journalism, reporters often focus on individual events to provide a more personal, relatable angle to a larger issue. In psychology, the study of individual events can help us understand phenomena like post-traumatic stress disorder or the impact of significant life events on mental health.

In the business world, analyzing individual events can provide insights into consumer behavior and decision-making processes. It can help marketers understand why certain products or services are successful in specific contexts and not others.


Students are encouraged to explore the following resources to aid in their understanding and preparation for this project:

  1. Study.com: Individual Events in Literature
  2. Literary Devices: Individual Events
  3. Khan Academy: Understanding Individual Events in Literature
  4. BBC Bitesize: Understanding Individual Events
  5. Book: "The Catcher in the Rye" by J.D. Salinger - This novel is an excellent example of the use of individual events in literature.
  6. Book: "To Kill a Mockingbird" by Harper Lee - This classic novel explores the themes of race, justice, and growing up through a series of individual events.

Practical Activity

Activity Title: "The Ripple Effect: Exploring Individual Events in Literature"


The main objective of this project is to enable students to understand the importance of individual events in literature, to explore the psychological and socio-cultural implications of these events, and to apply this knowledge to analyze and interpret a literary work.

Detailed Description:

In this project, each group of 3-5 students will select a book that prominently features individual events as a narrative tool. The book should be suitable for the 7th-grade reading level and must be approved by the teacher before beginning the project.

Students will then read the book, paying close attention to the individual events that occur and how they contribute to the overall story. They will analyze these events, considering the characters' motivations and decisions, the themes of the story, and the socio-cultural and psychological implications of these events.

Necessary Materials:

  • Chosen book (approved by the teacher)
  • Notebooks or digital document to record observations and analysis
  • Art supplies for the creation of a visual representation of the story (optional)

Detailed Step-by-Step:

  1. Book Selection: Each group will select a book from a pre-approved list provided by the teacher. This list will include a variety of genres and time periods, offering a diverse range of narratives to explore.

  2. Reading and Analysis: Once the book is chosen, the group will read it together, discussing the individual events as they occur. They should take notes about each event, including the characters involved, their thoughts and actions, and the consequences of the event. They should also consider how each event contributes to the development of the story and its themes.

  3. Research: After completing the book, the group should conduct research on the author, the time period in which the book was written, and any socio-cultural or historical events that may have influenced the author's writing. They should also research any psychological concepts or theories that may be relevant to the individual events in the story.

  4. Group Discussion and Reflection: Once the research is complete, the group should have a discussion reflecting on their findings. They should consider how the individual events in the book reflect the socio-cultural and psychological context in which they occur. They should also discuss any patterns or themes they noticed in the events and how these contribute to the overall story.

  5. Project Deliverables: Each group will create a written report detailing their analysis and findings. This report should include the following sections:

    • Introduction: The group should provide a brief summary of the book and its key themes. They should also explain why they chose this book and how it relates to the concept of individual events.

    • Development: This section should include a detailed analysis of the individual events in the book. The group should discuss the characters' motivations and decisions in these events, the consequences of the events, and how the events contribute to the overall story and its themes. They should also discuss any socio-cultural or psychological implications of the events, based on their research.

    • Conclusion: The group should revisit the main points of their analysis and discuss what they have learned about the use of individual events in literature and its real-world applications.

    • Bibliography: The group should list all the sources they used for their research, including the book itself and any online or print resources.

  6. Optional Bonus Task: As an optional extension to the project, each group can create a visual representation of their book. This could be a storyboard, a series of illustrations, or a short video. The group should explain their visual representation in a short presentation to the class, highlighting the key individual events and their analysis.

Project Deliverables:

  1. Written report: Each group will submit a written report detailing their analysis and findings. The report should be structured in four main sections: Introduction, Development, Conclusion, and Bibliography.

  2. Optional Bonus Task: A visual representation of the book and a short presentation explaining the representation.

The written report should reflect the students' understanding of the concept of individual events, their ability to analyze and interpret a literary work, and their teamwork and communication skills. The visual representation and presentation should demonstrate their creativity and their ability to communicate complex ideas in a clear, engaging way. The report and presentation should be completed within a span of one month.

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Traditional Stories


Traditional stories are cultural artifacts, a mirror reflecting a society's values, concerns, and aspirations. They include myths, legends, folktales, and fables passed down orally from generation to generation before being written down. Key theoretical concepts that govern traditional stories include themes, patterns of events, character types, and symbolism.

Themes in traditional stories often revolve around core human experiences, such as love, bravery, friendship, and the quest for identity. Through repeated patterns of events such as quests, ordeals, and triumphs, these stories create narratives that resonate on a deep psychological level. Character types, such as the hero, villain, mentor, and trickster, are recognizable across different cultures, implying universal human archetypes. Symbolism is used to convey deeper meanings, with objects, characters, or events representing abstract ideas.

Understanding traditional stories can give us a fresh perspective on modern works of fiction that draw on these elements. These can be seen in many of today's books, films, and even videogames, that use these ancient story-telling techniques to engage audiences and deliver impactful messages.

The relevance of traditional stories lies in their ability to provide a window into the collective psyche of different cultures. They give us insight into societal norms and values, helping us understand others and ourselves better. For example, Greco-Roman myths speak to societal power dynamics and human morality, while Native American folktales focus more on man's relationship with nature. They help us bridge gaps between cultures, fostering a better understanding and appreciation of the human experience across time and space.

In our modern, connected world, traditional stories can serve as a powerful tool for cross-cultural understanding and empathy. By teaching us about others, they also teach us about ourselves. Even within our own culture, reflecting on these old stories can remind us of shared values and ideals.


  1. "Folk and Fairy Tales – A Guide to Printed Resources". University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Link
  2. "Folktales and Fairy Tales: Traditions and Texts from around the World". Greenwood Press. Link
  3. "The Power of Myth" by Joseph Campbell. Link
  4. BBC’s collection of myths and legends. Link
  5. The Library of Congress’s list of folk tales from around the world. Link
  6. "The Uses of Enchantment: The Meaning and Importance of Fairy Tales" by Bruno Bettelheim. Link
  7. "Greek Mythology" by Hourly History. Link

Practical Activity

Activity Title: "Traditional Tales in Modern Fiction"

Objective of the Project:

The goal of this engaging project is for students to identify the influence of traditional stories in modern works of fiction, understand its significance and develop an appreciation for the depth and richness these traditional stories add. This will be done through extensive research, critical analysis, and collaborative storytelling.

Detailed Description of the Project:

Each group of students (3 to 5 in each) will choose a modern work of fiction such as a novel, movie, or videogame. The selected work should be heavily influenced by traditional stories. This could be through its themes, patterns of events, character types, or symbolism drawn from myths, legends, folktales, fables, or religious works.

Students will conduct in-depth research on the traditional stories that influenced their chosen modern work of fiction, focusing on the key theoretical concepts. Drawing on their research, they will create an engaging multimedia presentation that will explore the connections between the traditional stories and their modern counterpart, analyzing the purpose and effect of these influences.

Finally, the groups will create their own short story that incorporates these same traditional elements into a modern setting.

Necessary Materials:

  • Selected modern work of fiction (book, movie, videogame, etc.)
  • Research materials (Internet access, library access, etc.)
  • Multimedia presentation tools (PowerPoint, Canva, etc.)
  • Creative writing tools (Pen and paper, word processing software, etc.)

Detailed step-by-step for carrying out the activity:

  1. Selection: Each group will choose a modern work of fiction that is known to be influenced by traditional stories.
  2. Research: Team members will carry out extensive research on the traditional stories influencing their chosen work. They'll focus on themes, patterns of events, character types, and symbolism.
  3. Analysis: The group will collectively analyze the modern work, identifying and discussing where influences from traditional stories are evident.
  4. Presentation: Using multimedia tools, the group will create an engaging presentation outlining their research and analysis. The presentation should highlight the connections between the traditional stories and the modern work, explaining how and why these influences are used.
  5. Story Creation: The team will collaboratively write their own short story, incorporating themes, patterns of events, character types, or symbolism from traditional stories.
  6. Reflection: Each group will reflect on what they learned from the project, and how it has influenced their understanding and appreciation of modern fiction.

Project Duration: This project is expected to take more than twelve hours per student to complete.

Project Deliverables:

The main deliverable of this project is the multimedia presentation, which should detail the theoretical concepts, the process followed, and the analysis of the chosen work. This presentation will be given to the class, encouraging discussion and further understanding.

Additionally, the short story created by the students will be shared and read in class. It should demonstrate a creative and accurate use of traditional story elements in a modern context.

Lastly, a detailed written report should be submitted, structured in the following manner:

  1. Introduction: It should contextualize the chosen modern work of fiction, the traditional stories influencing it, and the objective of this project. It should also reflect on the real-world application and relevance of traditional stories in modern fiction.
  2. Development: This section should detail how traditional stories were identified in the modern work. It should explain the methodology used for the research and analysis, and discuss the results and findings.
  3. Conclusion: Revisiting the main points, this section should articulate what was learned from the project and the conclusions drawn about the influences of traditional stories on modern fiction.
  4. Bibliography: This last section should list the sources utilized for the research and completion of the project.

This project encourages both the acquisition of technical skills, like critical analysis and creative thinking, and the development of socio-emotional skills, such as time management, collaboration, and communication.

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