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Project of Story or Drama


Introduction to Story or Drama

In the world of literature, two essential genres stand out: story and drama. They are distinct in nature, yet intricately linked through the power of narrative.

A story can be a fictional tale or a true account that's crafted to engage and entertain an audience. It typically has a beginning, middle, and end, with a plot that unfolds over time. Stories can be written, spoken, or even depicted in visual forms like movies and TV shows.

On the other hand, drama refers to a literary genre that involves conflict and emotion in a story, portrayed through dialogue and action. It often takes the form of a play and is meant to be performed in front of an audience. Drama can be tragic, comedic, or a mix of both, but it always aims to evoke a response from the audience.

Importance of Storytelling and Drama

The art of storytelling and drama is not only confined to books and stages but permeates various aspects of our lives. From the movies we watch to the way we narrate our own experiences, we are constantly engaged in storytelling. It allows us to communicate, empathize, and make sense of the world around us.

Moreover, drama provides a unique platform for self-expression and understanding. By stepping into the shoes of different characters, we gain insights into different perspectives, fostering empathy and critical thinking.

Relevance in Today's World

In the digital age, the power of storytelling and drama has transcended traditional platforms. Social media, for instance, has become an arena for personal narratives and dramatic expressions. Moreover, businesses and organizations are increasingly using storytelling techniques to communicate their ideas and engage their audience.

In the context of education, the integration of storytelling and drama has proven to be an effective way to enhance learning. It makes the subject matter more relatable and engaging, facilitating better understanding and retention.

Suggested Resources

To delve deeper into the world of story and drama, here are some reliable resources:

  1. Story and Drama: A Resource Book for Key Stage 3 by David Crossley and Philip Cleaves.
  2. The Art of Dramatic Writing: Its Basis in the Creative Interpretation of Human Motives by Lajos Egri.
  3. The Hero with a Thousand Faces by Joseph Campbell.
  4. The Power of Storytelling: Captivate, Convince, or Convert Any Business Audience UsingStories from Top CEOs by Jim Holtje.
  5. The Moth - An acclaimed non-profit organization dedicated to the art and craft of storytelling.

Practical Activity

Activity Title: "From Page to Stage: Exploring Story and Drama"

Objective of the Project:

The aim of this project is to enable students to understand the concepts of story and drama in a practical and engaging way. Through the creation and performance of a short play based on a chosen story, students will learn how to analyze a story, identify key dramatic elements, and translate them into a dramatic presentation.

Detailed Description of the Project:

The project will be carried out in groups of 3 to 5 students. Each group will choose a short story (fiction or non-fiction) and adapt it into a short play script (approximately 10-15 minutes long). The group will then rehearse and perform their play for the class.

The play should effectively convey the story's plot, themes, and characters through dialogue and action. The group will also need to analyze the story and their play, identifying key dramatic elements (e.g., conflict, climax, resolution) and explaining how they were translated into the play.

Necessary Materials:

  1. Copies of short stories for each group.
  2. Access to library or online resources to research and find examples of dramatic elements.
  3. Writing materials for script preparation.
  4. Rehearsal space and time (could be a classroom, school auditorium, or any available space during school hours).

Detailed Step-by-Step for Carrying out the Activity:

  1. Forming Groups and Choosing a Story: The teacher will divide the class into groups of 3 to 5 students. Each group will choose a short story to work with.

  2. Reading and Analyzing the Story: The group will read and discuss the chosen story, identifying its major plot points, themes, and characters. They will also start thinking about how they can translate these elements into a dramatic presentation.

  3. Script Writing: Using their analysis of the story, the group will write a script for their play. The script should include dialogue, stage directions, and any other necessary elements to convey the story effectively.

  4. Rehearsals: The group will start rehearsing their play. This includes practicing their lines, blocking (deciding where the actors will move on stage), and working on their delivery and performance.

  5. Performance: Each group will perform their play in front of the class. After each performance, there will be a short Q&A session where the audience (other students and the teacher) can ask questions and provide feedback.

  6. Post-Performance Analysis: The group will analyze their own performance, discussing how well they were able to convey the story's elements and the challenges they faced. They will also revisit their script, identifying the key dramatic elements and explaining how they translated them into the play.

  7. Written Report: Finally, each group will write a report documenting their project journey, findings, and insights. The report should be structured as follows:

    • Introduction: Contextualize the chosen story, its relevance, and the objective of the project.

    • Development: Detail the theory behind stories and drama, explain the activity in detail, indicate the methodology used, and present and discuss the results obtained.

    • Conclusion: Revisit the main points of the project, state the learnings obtained, and draw conclusions about the project.

    • Bibliography: Indicate the sources used to work on the project, such as books, web pages, and videos.

The total duration of the project is 1 month, with an expected workload of 4 to 6 hours per student. The written report should be submitted within a week after the performance, allowing students to reflect on their experiences and consolidate their learnings.

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Structure a Text


The art of structuring a text is a fundamental skill in writing, whether it's an essay, a story, a report, or even a letter. The structure of a text is the framework that holds the content together, making it clear, cohesive, and engaging for the reader. It's like the skeleton of a body - invisible, yet essential for its functionality.

In this project, we will explore the key components of a well-structured text, namely the introduction, body, and conclusion. We will delve deeper into each section, understanding their roles, their characteristics, and how they interact with each other to deliver a powerful message or argument. Additionally, we will touch upon the concept of transitions, which are the bridges that connect different parts of a text.

The structure of a text is not arbitrary. It's carefully crafted to guide the reader through a logical flow of ideas, allowing them to follow the author's train of thought. This is why understanding and mastering text structure is essential not just for writing, but also for reading and comprehending complex texts.


The introduction is the beginning of a text, where the writer sets the stage, introduces the topic, and states their main point or thesis. It should grab the reader's attention and provide a clear roadmap of what's to come. A strong introduction can make or break a text, as it's the first impression the reader gets.

The body is the heart of the text, where the writer develops their main points or arguments. Each paragraph in the body should focus on a single idea, and these ideas should be logically connected, leading the reader towards the conclusion.

The conclusion is the end of the text, where the writer wraps up their main points, restates the thesis in a new light, and leaves the reader with a lasting impression. A good conclusion should tie together all the loose ends and provide a sense of closure.

Transitions are words, phrases, or sentences that show the connections between different parts of a text. They help guide the reader through the logical progression of ideas, making the text more coherent.


Understanding and using text structure effectively is not just an academic skill. It's a skill that we use every day in our personal and professional lives - when we write an email, a report, a blog post, or even a social media update.

In the world of work, being able to structure your ideas clearly and logically is an invaluable skill. It can help you write effective business proposals, persuasive sales pitches, or engaging marketing content. In the world of academia, it's the foundation of scholarly writing, allowing you to present complex ideas in a systematic and accessible way.

Moreover, understanding text structure can also make you a more discerning reader. When you know how a text is structured, you can better understand the author's intent, identify the main points, and evaluate the arguments. This is a crucial skill in this age of information overload, where we're bombarded with texts from all directions.


Below are some resources that can help you deepen your understanding of text structure:

  1. Purdue Online Writing Lab - A comprehensive guide to paragraphing and text structure.
  2. ReadWriteThink - A lesson plan on exploring text structure using the IDEA strategy.
  3. Time4Writing - A collection of resources on various writing skills, including text structure and paragraph development.
  4. Book: "They Say / I Say: The Moves That Matter in Academic Writing" by Gerald Graff and Cathy Birkenstein. This book provides a systematic approach to academic writing, focusing on the structure and development of arguments.

Practical Activity

Activity Title: "Text Architects: Building a Solid Structure for Effective Communication"

Objective of the Project:

The aim of this project is to understand and master the art of structuring a text by creating a collaborative written piece. This project will help you grasp the importance of a well-structured introduction, body, and conclusion, and the use of transitions to ensure a smooth flow of ideas. You will also learn the importance of cooperation, communication, and time management in a group project.

Detailed Description of the Project:

In this project, your group will create a comprehensive written piece on a chosen topic. The piece should include an engaging introduction, a well-developed body with clear main points, and a concluding paragraph that ties the whole piece together. Additionally, the use of transitions should be evident throughout the text, ensuring a logical and coherent flow of ideas.

This project will be divided into three main phases:

  1. Planning phase: This phase involves brainstorming and selecting a topic, researching and gathering information, and devising a plan for the structure of the written piece. Each group member should be actively involved in this phase.

  2. Writing phase: This phase involves putting the plan into action by writing the introduction, body, and conclusion of the text. Each group member should contribute to all parts of the text.

  3. Revision phase: This phase involves revising and editing the text for clarity, coherence, and effectiveness. Each group member should participate in this phase, providing constructive feedback and making necessary changes.

The written piece should be approximately 1000 words and must include at least five different transition words or phrases. It should be submitted as a group, with each member's contribution clearly indicated.

Necessary Materials:

  1. Access to a computer with internet connection for research and writing.
  2. Collaboration tools such as Google Docs or Microsoft Teams for group work and document sharing.
  3. Reliable internet connection for seamless communication and coordination.

Detailed Step-by-step for Carrying Out the Activity:

  1. Form groups: Divide the class into groups of 3 to 5 students. Each group should have a good mix of different skills and strengths.

  2. Choose a topic: As a group, choose a topic that is interesting and relevant to your grade level and curriculum.

  3. Research and plan: Conduct research on your chosen topic and plan the structure of your written piece. Identify the main points or arguments that you want to include in the body of the text.

  4. Write the introduction: Draft an engaging introduction that provides background information, introduces the topic, and states the purpose of your written piece.

  5. Write the body: Develop your main points or arguments in the body of the text. Each main point should be in a separate paragraph, and there should be a clear logical progression from one point to the next.

  6. Write the conclusion: Wrap up your main points, restate your thesis, and provide a concluding thought in the final paragraph.

  7. Use transitions: Throughout the writing process, ensure the use of appropriate transitions to connect your ideas and create a smooth flow of thoughts.

  8. Revise and edit: Review your written piece as a group, making necessary revisions for clarity, coherence, and effectiveness. Ensure that each member's contribution is clearly indicated.

  9. Submit the final piece: Once you are satisfied with your written piece, submit it as a group, along with a document that clearly indicates each member's contribution.

Project Deliverables:

  1. A written piece of approximately 1000 words on your chosen topic. The written piece should include an engaging introduction, a well-developed body with clear main points, and a concluding paragraph that ties the whole piece together. The use of transitions should be evident throughout the text.

  2. A document that clearly indicates each group member's contribution to the written piece. This document should be submitted along with your written piece.

  3. A short group presentation (approximately 10 minutes) where you explain your topic, the process of your project, and the key learnings from the project. This presentation should include all group members and should be engaging and interactive.

  4. A written report following the structure of Introduction, Development, Conclusion, and Bibliography. The introduction should contextualize your chosen topic, its relevance, real-world application, and the objective of this project. The development section should detail the theory behind text structure, explain the activity in detail, indicate the methodology used, and present and discuss the results. The conclusion should revisit the main points, explicitly state the learnings obtained, and draw conclusions about the project. The bibliography should list all the sources used to work on the project.

Remember, the quality of your written piece is just as important as the process of creating it. So, be sure to invest enough time and effort in every stage of the project, from planning to final submission. Good luck, Text Architects!

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Traditional Stories


Traditional stories are cultural artifacts, a mirror reflecting a society's values, concerns, and aspirations. They include myths, legends, folktales, and fables passed down orally from generation to generation before being written down. Key theoretical concepts that govern traditional stories include themes, patterns of events, character types, and symbolism.

Themes in traditional stories often revolve around core human experiences, such as love, bravery, friendship, and the quest for identity. Through repeated patterns of events such as quests, ordeals, and triumphs, these stories create narratives that resonate on a deep psychological level. Character types, such as the hero, villain, mentor, and trickster, are recognizable across different cultures, implying universal human archetypes. Symbolism is used to convey deeper meanings, with objects, characters, or events representing abstract ideas.

Understanding traditional stories can give us a fresh perspective on modern works of fiction that draw on these elements. These can be seen in many of today's books, films, and even videogames, that use these ancient story-telling techniques to engage audiences and deliver impactful messages.

The relevance of traditional stories lies in their ability to provide a window into the collective psyche of different cultures. They give us insight into societal norms and values, helping us understand others and ourselves better. For example, Greco-Roman myths speak to societal power dynamics and human morality, while Native American folktales focus more on man's relationship with nature. They help us bridge gaps between cultures, fostering a better understanding and appreciation of the human experience across time and space.

In our modern, connected world, traditional stories can serve as a powerful tool for cross-cultural understanding and empathy. By teaching us about others, they also teach us about ourselves. Even within our own culture, reflecting on these old stories can remind us of shared values and ideals.


  1. "Folk and Fairy Tales – A Guide to Printed Resources". University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Link
  2. "Folktales and Fairy Tales: Traditions and Texts from around the World". Greenwood Press. Link
  3. "The Power of Myth" by Joseph Campbell. Link
  4. BBC’s collection of myths and legends. Link
  5. The Library of Congress’s list of folk tales from around the world. Link
  6. "The Uses of Enchantment: The Meaning and Importance of Fairy Tales" by Bruno Bettelheim. Link
  7. "Greek Mythology" by Hourly History. Link

Practical Activity

Activity Title: "Traditional Tales in Modern Fiction"

Objective of the Project:

The goal of this engaging project is for students to identify the influence of traditional stories in modern works of fiction, understand its significance and develop an appreciation for the depth and richness these traditional stories add. This will be done through extensive research, critical analysis, and collaborative storytelling.

Detailed Description of the Project:

Each group of students (3 to 5 in each) will choose a modern work of fiction such as a novel, movie, or videogame. The selected work should be heavily influenced by traditional stories. This could be through its themes, patterns of events, character types, or symbolism drawn from myths, legends, folktales, fables, or religious works.

Students will conduct in-depth research on the traditional stories that influenced their chosen modern work of fiction, focusing on the key theoretical concepts. Drawing on their research, they will create an engaging multimedia presentation that will explore the connections between the traditional stories and their modern counterpart, analyzing the purpose and effect of these influences.

Finally, the groups will create their own short story that incorporates these same traditional elements into a modern setting.

Necessary Materials:

  • Selected modern work of fiction (book, movie, videogame, etc.)
  • Research materials (Internet access, library access, etc.)
  • Multimedia presentation tools (PowerPoint, Canva, etc.)
  • Creative writing tools (Pen and paper, word processing software, etc.)

Detailed step-by-step for carrying out the activity:

  1. Selection: Each group will choose a modern work of fiction that is known to be influenced by traditional stories.
  2. Research: Team members will carry out extensive research on the traditional stories influencing their chosen work. They'll focus on themes, patterns of events, character types, and symbolism.
  3. Analysis: The group will collectively analyze the modern work, identifying and discussing where influences from traditional stories are evident.
  4. Presentation: Using multimedia tools, the group will create an engaging presentation outlining their research and analysis. The presentation should highlight the connections between the traditional stories and the modern work, explaining how and why these influences are used.
  5. Story Creation: The team will collaboratively write their own short story, incorporating themes, patterns of events, character types, or symbolism from traditional stories.
  6. Reflection: Each group will reflect on what they learned from the project, and how it has influenced their understanding and appreciation of modern fiction.

Project Duration: This project is expected to take more than twelve hours per student to complete.

Project Deliverables:

The main deliverable of this project is the multimedia presentation, which should detail the theoretical concepts, the process followed, and the analysis of the chosen work. This presentation will be given to the class, encouraging discussion and further understanding.

Additionally, the short story created by the students will be shared and read in class. It should demonstrate a creative and accurate use of traditional story elements in a modern context.

Lastly, a detailed written report should be submitted, structured in the following manner:

  1. Introduction: It should contextualize the chosen modern work of fiction, the traditional stories influencing it, and the objective of this project. It should also reflect on the real-world application and relevance of traditional stories in modern fiction.
  2. Development: This section should detail how traditional stories were identified in the modern work. It should explain the methodology used for the research and analysis, and discuss the results and findings.
  3. Conclusion: Revisiting the main points, this section should articulate what was learned from the project and the conclusions drawn about the influences of traditional stories on modern fiction.
  4. Bibliography: This last section should list the sources utilized for the research and completion of the project.

This project encourages both the acquisition of technical skills, like critical analysis and creative thinking, and the development of socio-emotional skills, such as time management, collaboration, and communication.

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Individuals Events



In the vast realm of literature, there is a writing style that is often used to convey a story or message in a way that is engaging and thought-provoking. This style, known as "Individual Events," focuses on the development of characters and their interactions within a specific event or a series of closely related events.

Individual events can be seen as a microcosm of life, offering an intense exposure to human emotions, reactions, and decisions. These events may be significant on their own or as part of a larger narrative, but the key point is that they offer a concentrated, intimate look at the characters and their lives that can sometimes provide a deeper understanding of the human condition.

Theoretical Framework

This project is firmly rooted in the realm of English Literature. It will allow students to delve into the world of Individual Events, a narrative technique utilized by authors across genres and eras.

By understanding how authors construct and manipulate individual events, we can gain insights into the characters' emotional journeys, the themes of the story, and the social and cultural contexts in which these events take place.

From the psychological perspective, this project will enable students to explore the concept of "momentary madness" or the idea that people's actions and decisions in certain moments can be influenced by a multitude of factors, sometimes leading to unexpected outcomes.

From a socio-cultural standpoint, the project will encourage students to think about how individual events can reflect broader societal issues and power dynamics. This can include topics like gender roles, class struggles, and cultural norms.

Real-world Application

Understanding individual events is not just a theoretical concept confined to the classroom. It has real-world implications and applications.

For example, in the field of journalism, reporters often focus on individual events to provide a more personal, relatable angle to a larger issue. In psychology, the study of individual events can help us understand phenomena like post-traumatic stress disorder or the impact of significant life events on mental health.

In the business world, analyzing individual events can provide insights into consumer behavior and decision-making processes. It can help marketers understand why certain products or services are successful in specific contexts and not others.


Students are encouraged to explore the following resources to aid in their understanding and preparation for this project:

  1. Study.com: Individual Events in Literature
  2. Literary Devices: Individual Events
  3. Khan Academy: Understanding Individual Events in Literature
  4. BBC Bitesize: Understanding Individual Events
  5. Book: "The Catcher in the Rye" by J.D. Salinger - This novel is an excellent example of the use of individual events in literature.
  6. Book: "To Kill a Mockingbird" by Harper Lee - This classic novel explores the themes of race, justice, and growing up through a series of individual events.

Practical Activity

Activity Title: "The Ripple Effect: Exploring Individual Events in Literature"


The main objective of this project is to enable students to understand the importance of individual events in literature, to explore the psychological and socio-cultural implications of these events, and to apply this knowledge to analyze and interpret a literary work.

Detailed Description:

In this project, each group of 3-5 students will select a book that prominently features individual events as a narrative tool. The book should be suitable for the 7th-grade reading level and must be approved by the teacher before beginning the project.

Students will then read the book, paying close attention to the individual events that occur and how they contribute to the overall story. They will analyze these events, considering the characters' motivations and decisions, the themes of the story, and the socio-cultural and psychological implications of these events.

Necessary Materials:

  • Chosen book (approved by the teacher)
  • Notebooks or digital document to record observations and analysis
  • Art supplies for the creation of a visual representation of the story (optional)

Detailed Step-by-Step:

  1. Book Selection: Each group will select a book from a pre-approved list provided by the teacher. This list will include a variety of genres and time periods, offering a diverse range of narratives to explore.

  2. Reading and Analysis: Once the book is chosen, the group will read it together, discussing the individual events as they occur. They should take notes about each event, including the characters involved, their thoughts and actions, and the consequences of the event. They should also consider how each event contributes to the development of the story and its themes.

  3. Research: After completing the book, the group should conduct research on the author, the time period in which the book was written, and any socio-cultural or historical events that may have influenced the author's writing. They should also research any psychological concepts or theories that may be relevant to the individual events in the story.

  4. Group Discussion and Reflection: Once the research is complete, the group should have a discussion reflecting on their findings. They should consider how the individual events in the book reflect the socio-cultural and psychological context in which they occur. They should also discuss any patterns or themes they noticed in the events and how these contribute to the overall story.

  5. Project Deliverables: Each group will create a written report detailing their analysis and findings. This report should include the following sections:

    • Introduction: The group should provide a brief summary of the book and its key themes. They should also explain why they chose this book and how it relates to the concept of individual events.

    • Development: This section should include a detailed analysis of the individual events in the book. The group should discuss the characters' motivations and decisions in these events, the consequences of the events, and how the events contribute to the overall story and its themes. They should also discuss any socio-cultural or psychological implications of the events, based on their research.

    • Conclusion: The group should revisit the main points of their analysis and discuss what they have learned about the use of individual events in literature and its real-world applications.

    • Bibliography: The group should list all the sources they used for their research, including the book itself and any online or print resources.

  6. Optional Bonus Task: As an optional extension to the project, each group can create a visual representation of their book. This could be a storyboard, a series of illustrations, or a short video. The group should explain their visual representation in a short presentation to the class, highlighting the key individual events and their analysis.

Project Deliverables:

  1. Written report: Each group will submit a written report detailing their analysis and findings. The report should be structured in four main sections: Introduction, Development, Conclusion, and Bibliography.

  2. Optional Bonus Task: A visual representation of the book and a short presentation explaining the representation.

The written report should reflect the students' understanding of the concept of individual events, their ability to analyze and interpret a literary work, and their teamwork and communication skills. The visual representation and presentation should demonstrate their creativity and their ability to communicate complex ideas in a clear, engaging way. The report and presentation should be completed within a span of one month.

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