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Discipline: Physics

Question topic: Astronomy: Seasons of the Year

Source: Originais Teachy

Level of difficulty: Medium

(Originais Teachy 2023) - Question Medium of Physics

In ancient Egypt, the four seasons of the year were based on the annual cycle of the Nile River, which was essential for agriculture. The Egyptians recognized the arrival of summer by the rising of the star Sirius in the sky just before dawn, which occurred around the summer solstice, marking the beginning of the flooding of the Nile River. Suppose you are an ancient Egyptian trying to understand the relationship between the position of the Sun, the star Sirius, and the seasons of the year. (a) Why does the position of the Sun in the sky vary throughout the year due to the tilt of the Earth's axis and its orbit? (b) How could the observation of the rising of the star Sirius help you predict the arrival of summer and, consequently, the flooding of the Nile River? (c) Based on the observation of celestial bodies, think about the consequences of this for agriculture, crops, and how it shaped your calendar of annual events.


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Astronomy: Seasons of the Year
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In some cultures, the seasons of the year were marked by observations of the sky and the survival needs of the community. Which of the following alternatives presents an observation of the sky on which the marking of the seasons of the year by some of these cultures was based?
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Imagine that you are a young astronaut observing planet Earth from a telescope installed on a satellite. Over time, you notice changes in the landscapes of different regions of the planet, related to the different seasons of the year. Based on this observation, answer the following questions: a) Explain how the tilt of Earth's axis, along its orbit around the Sun, influences the occurrence of the seasons of the year. b) Considering the Southern Hemisphere, relate some natural phenomena or human activities that occur during the different seasons of the year and that are important for agriculture, hunting, myth, spatial and temporal orientation. c) If the tilt of Earth's axis were different, how could it affect the seasons of the year and the activities mentioned in item b?
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